Abarwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside mu Rwanda nibibande ku mvugo za ba Mugenzi wa @bbcgahuza n’abavuganira FDLR

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Mu myaka yashize iyo hagarukwaga ku byabaye mu Rwanda muri Mata 1994, hakoreshwaga imvugo “Itsembatsemba n’Itsembabwoko”, gusa iyi mvugo yaje guhindurwa bitewe n’uko yatezaga urujijo, hagaragazwa ko niba Abanyarwanda bashaka ko amateka avugwa uko yakabaye, hazajya hakoreshwa “Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi”.

Igitangaje rero ni ukubona nyuma y’imyaka 20 jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ibaye, hari umuntu utinyuka kumvikana avuga ko “Abatutsi bagize uruhare muri jenoside yabakorewe muri Mata 1994”. Ibi ni ugupfobya jenoside, cyangwa ni ukugoreka amateka nkana ku bw’inyungu runaka ?

Mu kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano cyahise kuri BBC-Gahuzamiryango kuwa Gatandatu tariki ya 12 Nyakanga 2014, abatumirwa baganiraga kuri raporo ya Maina Kiai, Intumwa idasanzwe y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ku iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu, barimo umunyamategeko Evode Uwizeyimana ndetse na Joseph Karorero ukora muri Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya jenoside bagaragaza ko hari aho iyi raporo igoreka amateka y’u Rwanda. Ku rundi ruhande hari Joseph Matata na Boniface Twagirimana bo mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe na leta bemeranya n’ibikubiye muri icyo cyegeranyo, Umunyamakuru Ally Yusuf Mugenzi uyobora iki kiganiro yavuze ko amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko Abatutsi bagize uruhare mu itegurwa rya jenoside yabakorewe.

Umuhutu n’ Umututsi bo mu Rwanda rwo hambere

Abazi gusesengura amateka y’u Rwanda bavuga ko kuva na kera yagiye agorekwa ku nyungu za bamwe, aho bisaba ingufu nyinshi gusobanurira bamwe inkomoko y’ijambo Abahutu, Abatutsi, Abatwa.

Ubusanzwe ubu bwoko bwagaragazaga abantu bitewe n’amikoro-shingiro (classes socials/ social classes) babarizwamo. Iyo umuntu yabaga afite amashyo arenze rimwe (ishyo ni inka zirenga 10 harimo n’ikimasa byibura kimwe) yabaga ari Umututsi, yaba atarabigeraho akaba Umuhutu.

Abahanga mu mateka bagaragaza ko ubusanzwe kuba Umuhutu byabaga bisobanuye ubugaragu bushingiye ku nka ; ibi bivuga ko uwagabirwaga n’Umututsi wese (mu gihe ari umugaragu we) yabaga ari Umuhutu, hanyuma uyu nawe agaharanira kuzamuka mu cyiciro arimo, yaba rero agejeje ku ishyo ndetse agatangira nawe kugabira abandi, akaba ahindutse Umututsi atyo, ibi bakabyita “kwihutura”.

Urugero rworoshye rugaragaza ko Umuhutu byari bisobanuye “uwagabiwe inka kugirango azamuke” ni icyivugo cya Mutara wa III Rudahigwa wagiraga ati “Ndi Umuhutu wa Rwabutogo…” !

Uyu Rwabutogo yari nyirarume wa Rudahigwa kuko yavaga inda imwe na Kankazi, nyina wa Rudahigwa, umugore wa Musinga. Birazwi neza ko abami babaga ari Abatutsi ; bivuga rero ko iki kivugo yagitewe n’uko Rwabutogo yigeze kumugabira ishyo ry’amashashi, ahita abyishimira atangira kujya yiyita Umuhutu wa Rwabutogo.

Ubwo rero kwitwa Umuhutu wa kanaka byasobanuraga ko uwiswe atyo yagabiwe cyangwa azagabirwa, bikamutera ishema, agaharanira kuzamuka ngo nawe azagire Abahutu be ubwo azaba yihutuye (yahindutse Umututsi). Byumvikane neza ko n’Umututsi wagiraga ibyago akabura inka ze cyangwa akanyagwa, yahitaga ahinduka Umuhutu, akazategereza kongera kurebwa neza na shebuja cyangwa akazasoza ubuzima bwe akiri Umuhutu.

Amashirakinyoma ku igorekwa ry’amateka

Abakoloni bageze muri Afurika no mu Rwanda by’umwihariko basanze rubanda rubanye neza, abantu bavuga ururimi rumwe, batabarana, bagasangira akabisi n’agahiye, bazana politiki ya “tubatanye tubashe kubategeka” (diviser pour regner).

Kubera iyo politiki, nibwo bapimye amazuru, bareba abarebare n’abagufi, uruhu rukeye, bareba abafite abafite amazuru y’umutonzi n’abafite apyinagaye bati “Mwe muri Abatutsi, mwe muri Abahutu”, kuva ubwo bifatwa nk’itegeko bijya mu ibuku (icyangombwa cyaje guhinduka indangamuntu nyuma), kuva ubwo byitwa ubwoko.

Aya mateka yaje gutuma bamwe mu bantu bakomoka mu muryango umwe bisanga badahuje ubwoko, aho wasangaga hari abantu bafite umukurambere w’Umututsi bakomokaho ariko bamwe bakaba ari Abatutsi abandi ari Abahutu. Ababiligi babwiwe ko aha babaze nabi cyane, babura uko babihindura kandi ubwoko bwamaze gushyirwa mu ibuku, bagafata Umuhutu wo mu muryango w’Abatutsi bakamujyana mu kandi karere ka kure, agaturayo agatana n’umuryango we atyo.

Inkomoko nyakuri y’icyo Ally Yusuf Mugenzi yise “gukandamiza Abahutu”

Kubera ko abami n’Abatware benshi bari abo mu bwoko bw’Abatutsi, ibi kandi ni ko bimeze nta wabihindura kuko nk’uko nabigarutseho hejuru, Umuhutu (as a concept) byari ubugaragu bushingiye ku nka ; bisobanuye ko Abatutsi ari bo bari ku butegetsi. Umukoroni ahageze ntiyari guhita atangira gutegeka abantu asanze babanye neza dore ko n’ubwumvikane bushingiye ku rurimi bwari ikibazo, kuko byari bibangamiye cyane ya politiki y’abakoloni ya “tubatanye tubashe kubategeka”. Kavamahanga yatangiye gukoresha ubutegetsi bwari buriho kuko yari azi neza ko umwami, shefu, sushefu n’abatware nibavuga ari bwo rubanda rugufi ruzabumva.

Kugirango Ababiligi bazagere ku mugambi wabo, bazanye politiki yo gukoresha Abatutsi ibikorwa bikandamiza Abahutu kuko bari bizeye neza ko ubu buryo bazabwungukiramo, aho bazaba bangisha Abahutu Abatutsi. Ibi kandi ni ko byaje kugenda, ni birebire ntitwabivamo muri iyi nkuru.

Ariko binumvikane neza ko kuva Abakoloni baza, kugeza n’aho baciriye Umwami Yuhi Musinga mu 1931, Umwami w’u Rwanda yari igikoresho kuko nta butegetsi yari afite ku batware. Ukundi kuri ni uko abashefu n’abasushefu batari abakozi b’Umwami kuko bari aba leta y’Abakoloni yabashyiragaho ikabahemba ikaba yanabakuraho igihe cyose ishakiye.

Gusa bwarakeye abakoroni bazana politiki yo guhinga ibihingwa bishya, cyane cyane ibihingwa ngengabukungu n’ibindi byabafashaga mu ntambara harimo ikawa n’imyumbati. Abanyarwanda babanje kubyanga, hanyuma ahagana mu 1933 abazungu bashyiraho ikiboko na shiku, bigashyirwa mu bikorwa n’ibirongozi (soma ibirongoozi) ; aba bari bameze nk’ abayobozi b’utugari b’ubu.

Ibi si abazungu babyikoreraga ubwabo, ahubwo aba batware (ibirongozi) nibo bategekaga abantu (rubanda rugufi…) imirimo y’agahato, ari nako ikiboko kibari ku mugongo. Amateka agaragaza ko igihano cyo gukubita abantu bakuru cyazanywe n’abakoloni uhereye ku Badage, nticyabahago mu Rwanda.

Izina « ikiboko » ubwaryo si Ikinyarwanda. Ikiboko byakomotse mu Giswayire, bikomoka ku nkoni iryana yakorwaga mu ruhu rw’imvubu. Imvubu mu Giswayire yitwa “KIBOKO”. Kugeza n’ubu inkoni ikubita abantu yitwa kiboko mu rurimo rw’Igiswayire.

Uretse gushaka kugoreka amateka, ntibyumvikana ukuntu umutware wari ufite abagaragu, akabatwara neza akabatonesha bwacya akabagabira bagatunga bagakamira abana (ibi bisobanuye neza ko Abatware bakundaga abagaragu babo-Abahutu), bwacya mu gitondo agatangira kubatwaza ikiboko no kubakoresha imirimo y’agahato bitaga shiku ; Oya, igisubizo ni kimwe, ni uko ari abazungu babikoraga ariko bakabikoresha abategetsi- Abatutsi.

Ubusanzwe igihano cyo gukubita cyageraga kuri bose (Abahutu n’Abatutsi) kuko Abazungu bakubitaga abashefu n’abasushefu, kandi bagakubitirwa imbere y’imbaga bayobora hanyuma nabo bagategekwa gukubita rubanda.

Revolisiyo ya 59 yambitse ubusa Abakoroni

Nyuma y’uko Umwami Rudahigwa avumbuye imigambi y’ Abazungu akabereka ko u Rwanda ari urw’Abanyarwanda ko atazemera ikibatanya, baramugambaniye baramuhitana. Abakoloni batangira kwigisha Abahutu ko Abatutsi babakandamije, umugambi bari barateguye bawugeraho bifashishije insoresore z’ Abahutu zari zirangije amashuri.

Igikorwa cya mbere cyabayeho ni uko izi nsoresore zirimo ba Mbonyumutwa wabaye Perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda na ba Kayibanda zabisamiye hejuru, zihirika ubutegetsi bwa cyami babifashijwemo n’abakoloni. Ubwo umwami Rudahigwa yagwaga ishyanga zishyiraho repubulika nyuma yo kumenesha Kigeli Ndahindurwa wari usimbuye mukuru we.

Kuva ubwo urwango umuzungu yabibye mu muhutu ko Umututsi ari umwanzi we wa mbere rwatangiye kujya ku mugaragaro. Uko abategetsi bagiye bakurikirana ku ngufu dore ko bagiye bakuranwa ku ngoma habayeho kudeta (coup d’etat), batangira gutegura jenoside yaje gushyirwa mu bikorwa bitari umugani guhera muri Mata 1994. Iyo jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yatangiye iminota cyangwa amasaha make cyane nyuma y’uko Habyarimana Yuvenali wari warafashije intagondwa z’Abahutu kuyitegura yaraswaga akagwa iwe i Kanombe mu Mujyi wa Kigali.

Gupfobya amateka nkana kwa Ally Yusuf Mugenzi

Mu kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano twagarutseho hejuru aha, uwacyumvise wese yabashije kumva uburyo Joseph Karorero yananiwe gusobanurira Mugenzi uburyo ibyo avuga ko Abatutsi bateguye jenoside yabakorewe atari ukuri. Akenshi wasangaga agaruka ku kuba we avuga kuri raporo ya Maina Kiai nk’umunyamategeko yiburanira ko atari umunyamateka. Ibi bigaragaza ko byari bigoye cyane gukura muri Mugenzi icyo yemera muri we.

Igiteye inkeke ni ukuba umunyamakuru w’umwuga ufite uburambe nk’ubwa Mugenzi yatinyuka kuvuga ko Abatutsi bateguye jenoside yabakorewe. Ni ibintu bibabaje kuko bigaragara nko kwirengagiza amateka. Uretse n’ibi kandi, tugarutse ku busobanuro bw’ijambo « gutegura », bisobanura gukora umugambi w’ikintu runaka uzi neza ko uzacyungukiramo mu bihe bizaza. Ese ni gute wategura ikintu uzi ko kizakugiraho ingaruka mbi nyuma ? Ni gute wategura ikintu uzi neza ko ikizavamo ari ukurimburwa kw’abazagukomokaho bose ?

Ibi si ugutegura jenoside, ahubwo byakwitwa ubwiyahuzi, nk’uko utegura kwiturikirizaho igisasu aba yiteguye neza ko nawe kitazamusiga.

Nyuma y’intwaro zikomeye zifashishijwe n’abahakana bakanapfobya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi zirimo kuvuga ko habaye imyivumbagatanyo hagati y’Abanyarwanda, bwacya bakavuga ko ari jenoside yakorewe Abanyarwanda, bakongera bati habaye jenoside ebyiri, aho Abahutu bishe Abatutsi bwacya Abatutsi nabo bakica Abahutu, ibyavugwaga haruguru biraganisha ku yindi ntwaro y’ubuhakanyi bwa jenoside noneho izanywe no kugaragariza Abanyarwanda, amahanga n’ abo bireba bose ko Abatutsi biteguriye jenoside yabakorewe.

Ni byiza ko inzego zishinzwe kurwanya no kwamagana abapfobya n’abahakana jenoside bafatanyiriza hamwe kwamagana iyi mvugo, hato amateka atagorekwa turebera, ibikomere by’ababuze ababo bigatonekwa n’abatabashakira amahoro.

Ushobora kumva icyo kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano ukanze hano].

Inkomoko

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2 thoughts on “Abarwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside mu Rwanda nibibande ku mvugo za ba Mugenzi wa @bbcgahuza n’abavuganira FDLR

  1. Pingback: Uburyo Bunogeye bwo Kurwanya Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ku aradiyo nka BBC-Gahuzamiryango #Rwanda #Kwibuka20 @mwasa @albcontact @Ibingira | umuvugizi

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