Rusesabagina, Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’Ikimwaro

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Umugabo Terry George ni umunyamerika uzwi mu bihangange mu gukora za sinema. Mu Rwanda azwi by’umwihariko kubera film yitwa “Hotel Rwanda”. Uyu Terry, ari mu banditse igitabo cyashingiweho mu gukinwa kw’iyi film, akaba ari nawe wayoboye ikorwa ryayo kugeza aho isohokeye. “Hotel Rwanda” yaramamaye ku isi, ibona n’ibihembo byinshi byo mu rwego rwo hejuru.

Iyi filimi yanasize iremye “intwari” yitwa Rusesabagina Paul, umunyarwanda bagaragaje nk’intangarugero mu kwitandukanya na jenoside. Bamugize umuntu udasanzwe, kandi mwiza cyane. Ubwiza n’ubutwari, bwo kuba yaritwaye neza ku buryo ngo aho kwica abatutsi we yabakijije.

Nyuma yo gusohoka kw’iyi film, intwari yaremewe Hollywood yatengushye abayitatse. Yabaye aka ya mvugo itwibutsa ko nyakibi atarara bushyitsi. Rusesabagina, yananiwe kwigaragaza cyangwa ngo yitware uko abanditsi n’abakinnyi ba film bamurangiye isi. Aho kugerageza kwiyerekana ko koko ntaho ahuriye n’abakoze jenoside n’abafite ingengabitekerezo yayo, ku mugaragaro Rusesabagina yahisemo kunga ubumwe nabo. Ibi bishingiye ku biganiro yagiye atanga henshi, aho bamutumiye ngo ahabwe ibihembo by’ubutwari yagize, ubwo kuba we atarishe mu 1994, no ku maradiyo BBC na VOA yamuhaye kenshi ijambo.

Mu kinyamakuru “The Washington Post”, cyo ku ya 10 Gicurasi 2006, Terry George yasohoye inyandiko ndende agaya abatemera n’abagaya ubutwari n’imyitwarire bya Rusesabagina. Muri iyo nyandiko, agaragaza ko mu Rwanda yari yahabonye inkuru imugaragariza ko ngo no hagati y’amahano (nk’ayabaye mu Rwanda-NDLR), ububasha bwo gukora icyiza buba mu muntu bushobora gutsinda.

Muri iyo nyandiko, Terry yagerageje kuvugira “Hotel Rwanda” n’intwari yaremye. Yanenze abagaya iyo film cyane ku muntu yashingiyeho nk’inkuru, avuga ko batatira ukuri. Abumva ko ubutwari bwa Rusesabagina ntaho bushingiye, Terry ababonamo kugoreka cyangwa gucurika amateka nkana ku buryo hari aho yanditse abyita “kwanduza intwari”.

Kugeza ubu maze kubona ko Terry yibeshye kuri Rusesabagina, akaba acyibwira ko ntaho ahuriye n’abajenosideri. Ibi Terry yari kubimenya iyo abasha gukurikira byinshi kandi bibi Rusesabagina yagiye avuga, akanandika abitewe no kwitwa intwari ihebuje. Ibyo avuga, n’ubugome bwuzuyemo, biraruhije kwemeza ko ari ibyo yadukanye cyangwa yabwirijwe n’abantu nyuma yo kwitwa umuntu mwiza cyane.

Ingengabitekerezo ashyira ahagaragara ubu, bigaragara ko ayimaranye igihe kinini ku buryo icyo abamushimye bahereyeho atari cyo aha agaciro. Agahebuzo ni ibijyanye n’ibyo yavuze nyuma ya raporo y’umucamanza, w’umufaransa Jean Louis Bruguière ku ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana.

Impuzamugambi Rusesabagina na Burguière

Igihe na nyuma yo kugira Rusesabagina intwari, Terry George yari akwiye no kumuragira byaba na ngombwa akamushyiriraho umuntu umukurikiranira hafi ibitekerezo bitangazwa n’icyo kiremwa cye. Impamvu ni ukugirango hato abantu batazibwira ko batahiriza umugozi umwe. Rusesabagina na Burguière babaye impuzamugambi.

Raporo ya Burguière n’impapuro zisaba gufatwa kw’abasirikare b’u Rwanda byasohokeye rimwe n’icyo Rusesabagina yise ikirego yatanze mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rukorera Arusha (TPIR/, arega Perezida Paul Kagame. Hari ku itariki ya 17 Ugushyingo 2006. Niho bombi bashyize ahagaragara ingengabitekerezo yabo.

Uwitwa ko yarwanyije jenoside ubu niwe uyiharanira afatanyije n’umucamanza ukorera igihugu kirwaye ikimwaro cyo kuba cyarashyigikiye ndetse gikomeje gushyigikira abajenosideri. Ku itariki ya 21 Ugushyingo 2006, Rusesabagina yagiranye ikiganiro na Radio Ijwi ry’Amerika. Umunyamakuru wayo yamubajije uko yakiriye ibirego byatanzwe n’umujuji w’Umufaransa, Bruguière, ndetse n’ubushinjacyaha bwo mu Bufaransa, n’aho bihuriye n’ibyo we yandikiye urukiko mpuzamahanga rwa LONI rukorera Arusha.

Mu gusubiza, Paul Rusesabagina ati: “Biriya birego bya Juji Bruguière nabyakiranye ingoga kuko nk’uko ubimbajije bisa neza neza n’uko natwe ikirego cyacu giteye. Ikirego cya Juji Bruguière, uretse ko wenda atakireze mu kinyarwanda, ariko ku Banyarwanda batwumva, ni ugushaka gukurikirana abantu bagushije indege ya Perezida Habyarimana. Mu by’ukuri, umuntu wagushije indege ya Perezida Habyarimana, n’ubwo yaba atari we watekereje mbere kuri Jenoside, ariko ni we wayishyize mu bikorwa. Uwo muntu rero wayishyize mu bikorwa ni we twareze, ni we kandi na Juge Bruguière arimo arega, ibi neza neza, bigahura n’ibyifuzo byacu. Kandi ibi ngibi na none bikongera bikansubiza intege mu bugingo, bikanyibutsa yuko noneho ahari amahanga nayo atangiye kumva ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda…”

Kwakirana ikintu ingoga ni ukuba waracyiteguye cyane, waragitegereje cyane kigatinda, cyangwa ukacyifuza ukakibura. Ibyo byose kuri Rusesabagina birashoboka. Iperereza ry’umucamanza Bruguière, ryamaze igihe kinini rikorwa. Ariko uko ryakomezaga, ni nako imyanzuro yari inasanzwe mbere y’iperereza, yagendaga itangazwa urusorongo. Hari n’abatekereza ko imwe mu myanzuro itashyizwe muri raporo ya nyuma ahubwo ikaba yarahariwe ibitabo bya ba Péan, Ruzibiza na Onana.

Muri uko gutangaza imyanzuro urusorongo, niko habayeho igihe cyo kuvuga ko “boîte noire” y’indege ya Habyarimana yabonetse muri LONI i New York, Bruguière bakamubwira ko ibyo yita ukuri ari ibinyoma. Ayo matangazo menshi, buri mwaka yagendaga ashyirwa mu bitangazamakuru, mbere cyangwa mu kwezi kwa Mata, mu gihe cyo kwibuka abazize jenoside. Muri iyo politiki y’Ubufaransa yo kurwana n’ikimwaro, umenya ari nabwo Rusesabagina yiteguraga igihe azahuriza umugambi na Bruguière. Icyo ni nacyo Rusesagabina yari yarabuze kugeza mu Ugushyingo 2006.

Gukorera ibintu umunsi umwe, ikirego kikava kwa Rusesabagina na Bruguière, ntawabifata nk’ibintu by’impanuka cyangwa impurirane gusa. Keretse uwatumye Bruguière, ari nawe wateguye uburyo hazaba impurirane y’ibirego bigomba gushyirwa ahagaragara. Itangazo n’ibirego bya Bruguière byateye Rusesabagina ingoga, ishyushyu yari afite rituma amena ibanga yemeza ko ibya bombi bisa neza neza ndetse bigahura n’ibyifuzo byabo. Rusesabagina akoresha amagambo “twe”, “ikirego cyacu”, “ibyifuzo byacu” …bivuze ko usesengura adakwiye kumubona nk’umuntu umwe wivugira. Afite abo ahagarariye kandi avugira. Abo akaba ari nabo bahuza ibitekerezo n’ibikubiye muri raporo ya Juji w’Umufaransa.

Ibyo Rusesabagina yabwiye VOA ntabwo Bruguière yigeze abihakana cyangwa ngo agire icyo abihinyuzaho. Bamuvugiye ibintu mu rurimi rw’ikinyarwanda. Icyo Rusesabagina na Burguière bahuriraho ni iki? Rusesabagina n’abo ahagarariye, ndetse na Bruguière bahuzwa no kwemeza ko ngo “umuntu wagushije indege ya Perezida Habyarimana” ari we nyirabayazana wa jenoside. Ibyo bikaba ari ugushyigikira igitekerezo cy’uko ngo uwishe perezida ari we wateye jenoside. Iyo ngengabitekerezo ikaba imaze igihe igaragara mu bantu bashyigikira umugambi wa jenoside.

Kuri Rusesabagina, hari ibice bibiri byateguye jenoside. Aragira ati: “… n’ubwo yaba atari we watekereje mbere kuri jenoside, ariko ni we wayishyize mu bikorwa”. Icyo bivuze ni uko hari uwatekereje jenoside mbere, ntayishyire mu bikorwa. Hakaba n’uwa kabiri wayitekereje nyuma akanayishyira mu bikorwa. Iyo akaba ari nayo jenoside Rusesabagina yemera, kuko anavuga ati “Uwo muntu rero wayishyize mu bikorwa ni we twareze, ni we kandi na Juge Bruguière arimo arega, ibi neza neza, bigahura n’ibyifuzo byacu”.

Iyo mvugo, “…n’ubwo yaba atari we…” ni ugushaka ku ngufu kwegeka icyaha ku muntu utari we. Ubivuga aba azi ko hari uwagize igitekerezo cyo gukora jenoside, akanakora ibyangombwa byose bikenewe kugirango asohoze umugambi we. Icyo impuzamugambi Rusesabagina na Bruguière baharanira ni umwanzuro ugusha ku kugira umwere uwashyize jenoside mubikorwa. Intambara y’izo mpuzamugambi n’uko uwatekereje gukora jenoside bagomba kumuburanira, kugira ngo ataba ari we uryozwa kuyishyira mu bikorwa. Uwo barega ni we babonye wo kuyitwerera.

Uwo Rusesabagina yareze mu rukiko rwa Arusha, ni Perezida Paul Kagame. Bivuze ko kuri we, ari we wakoze jenoside. Bruguière nawe icyo yakoze ni ugusaba urwo rukiko mpuzamahanga gukurikirana uwo Rusesabagina yareze, abasirikare b’u Rwanda, bahoze muri RPA we ngo Ubufaransa buzabikurikiranira mu rwego rwo gushaka guhana abahanuye indege ya Habyarimana “yo ntandaro ya jenoside”.

Rusesabagina yabaye intwari ya Hollywood kubera jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda, ngo we akagira abo ahisha. Abishwe, ubu aravuga ko bishwe na bene wabo. Abo isi yemera ko bateguye bakanashyira mu bikorwa jenoside, we ntabyemera. Kuri we nta mugambi wa jenoside wabaye. Yemera impurirane y’abateguraga jenoside bataziranye. Uwatanze ikiguzi kidasanzwe ngo ahagarike jenoside, ubu akaba ari we yita nyiri icyo cyaha cy’ubugome bw’indengakamere.

Ku batabizi cyangwa abatabyibuka, mu gihe cya jenoside, habayeho igikorwa cyo kwimura abantu bari mu bice bibiri by’abarwanaga. Ni ukuvuga abari mu gice cy’inkotanyi bifuzaga kujya mu ruhande rwa guverinoma yakoraga jenoside, n’abari ku ruhande rw’iyo leta bifuzaga kujya mu ruhande rw’inkotanyi. Mubahisemo kujya mu ruhande rutari urw’abajenosideri, ku bushake, ni abari baracumbikiwe muri Hotel des Mille Collines ubu bataziriye “Hotel Rwanda”. Na Paul Rusesabagina yajyanye na bo.

Ashakira ubuhungiro mu Inkotanyi, ntekereza ko byari ku bushake bwo guhitamo neza. Niba acyemera ko hari abantu yahishe, mu i Hoteli yari yararagijwe, ni uko bari bafite icyo bahunga. Aho bahisemo nk’ubuhungiro buruta ubwo muri “Hotel Rwanda”, hari mu gice kigenzurwa n’ingabo z’inkotanyi zayoborwaga na Paul Kagame. Izo ngabo ubu akaba ari zo Rusesabagina ashinja kuba zarashyize mu bikorwa jenoside.

Ikibazo ni: Ese ibyo Rusesabagina yashingiyeho atanga ikirego yabimenye ryari? Ibyo yashingiyeho ni iperereza yikoreye, cyangwa n’iryakozwe n’abo bahuje umugambi? Ahisha abantu, yabahungishaga iki, abahungisha nde? Kumenya ko uwatekereje jenoside bwa mbere atari we wayishyize mu bikorwa, yabimenye ryari? Uwayishyize mu bikorwa yamumenye ryari ko uwo yareze Arusha ari nawe yahungiyeho ajyanye n’abo yari yaracumbikiye ubu byitwa ko yakijije?

Rusesabagina yapfuye urwa Mukezamfura

Ibibazo ngerageza kwibaza, byari bikwiye kuba iby’abamubonyemo Rusesabagina intwari, bitewe n’uko bamufashe nk’umuntu warwanyije jenoside, yarangiza, agahakana uruhare rw’abayikoze. Ibyo Rusesabagina yabwiye VOA yishimira guhuza umugambi n’ibyifuzo na Bruguière, bifite ubukana bwo guhakana jenoside bugeze mu yindi ntera. Yarenze abavuga ko urupfu rwa perezida Habyarimana rwabaye imbarutso ya jenoside (n’ubwo atari byo).

Ubundi abavuga ko urwo rupfu rwabaye intandaro ya jenoside banagerekaho ko habaye akajinya k’abaturage/abanyarwanda (abahutu) bakica abatutsi mu rwego rwo kwihorera. Ubwo buryo bwo guhakana jenoside, ni nabwo bwatumye leta y’abafaransa baha inshingano Bruguière yo kubikora byitwa ko arwanya iterabwoba. Babikoze mu rwego rwo guhisha ikimwaro, bemeza ko kamere muntu y’uburakari ari yo yatumye imfu z’abantu barenga miliyoni bazize “agashavu”. Ikigamijwe, kikaba ko uwakoze jenoside kubera agashavu n’uwamushyigikiye, badakwiye kubiryozwa cyangwa kubigayirwa.

Muri urwo rukiko rwa Arusha Rusesabagina yajyanyemo ikirego, hari abantu bakatiwe igifungo kubera ko bemeye ko bakoze jenoside, biyongera kubo urukiko rwagihamije, mu manza zatwaye akayabo. Abo bose, kuri Rusesabagina, ntabwo ari jenoside bakoze. Uwishe umututsi ni ukubera agashavu no kwihorera. Abo we na Bruguière barega, ngo nibo bakoze jenoside. Uwashyize ikintu mu bikorwa, ntabwo aba yanatumye. Arikorera. Mu yandi magambo, abo bemeye cyangwa bahamijwe icyaha n’urwo rukiko mpuzamahanga baribeshyeye cyangwa ni abere b’inzirakarengane.

Ibyo byifuzo Rusesabagina ahuza na Bruguière, avuga ko bimusubiza “intege mu bugingo,” bikamwibutsa ko ngo noneho amahanga na yo “atangiye kumva ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda…” Izo ntege n’ubugingo asubirana, ntabwo byaba ari ibya nyuma ya jenoside. Ni ibyo yari asanganywe. Keretse yemeje ko ibyo yakoze byose mu 1994, yabikoze ari ikigoryi cyangwa umusazi ubifitiye icyemezo.

Hari inyandiko nigeze gukora mu w’2005 ngaragaza ko mu mitekerereze ya MUKEZAMFURA Alfred, abakoze jenoside ababonamo intwari. Mubavugwaga harimo Habyarimana, na “guverinoma y’abatabazi”. Muri iyo nyandiko nerekanye uburyo mu mvugo y’abateguye bakanakora jenoside, ko umututsi, uretse kuba bari baramwambuye ubu-muntu, ntabwo yitwaga umunyarwanda. Na Rusesabagina iyo avuga “…ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda…” abo yita abanyarwanda ni abo ahuje nabo ibyifuzo. Kwita abatutsi “inyenzi” cyangwa “umwanzi”, aho kubita abanyarwanda, ni uburyo bwakoreshejwe n’abateguye jenoside mu rwego rwo kwitandukanya nabo kugirango uwica yumve ko nta shyano akoze ryo kwica uwo bafite icyo bahuriyeho.

Itsembabatutsi ryo muri Mata 1994, ntiryaje ritunguranye cyangwa ari uburakali bw’abaturage batewe n’urupfu rwa Perezida Juvenali Habyarimana. Icyo ababikoresha baba bashaka kugeraho mu magambo aziguye, n’ataziguye ni ukwemeza abantu ko jenoside itateguwe. Bafite impamvu ikomeye yo kubikora. Kuba mu bantu bateguye bakanashyira mu bikorwa jenoside biremerera ababikoze n’ababishyigikiye. Intambara leta y’abafaransa bahoramo barwanya leta y’abarwanyije jenoside ni aho ishingira.

Umugambi wo gutsemba abatutsi mu Rwanda warakozwe uranozwa. Uwo mugambi washyizwe kumugaragaro na General-Major Habyarimana Yuvenali, Perezida Fondateri wa MOUVEMENT REVOLUTIONAIRE IHARANIRA AMAJYAMBERE Y’U RWANDA (MRND), nka gahunda ya politiki y’ishyaka yayoboraga. Uwo mugambi mubisha washyizwe ahagaragara ku itariki ya 28 Mata 1991 ubwo yatangizaga kongere idasanzwe ya MRND. Iryo jambo ryanakozwemo igitabo cyanditswe mu ndimi z’ikinyarwanda n’igifaransa. [Perezidansi ya Repubulika, Gicurasi 1991]

Iyo disikuru yavuzwe n’inshuti magara y’abategetsi b’Ubufaransa mu bihe byo gutegura jenoside yashingiraga ku ngengabitekerezo yari isanzwe, ariko itarajya ahagaragara ngo ivugwe n’umukuru w’igihugu, nka gahunda y’ishyaka ryategekaga. Uwo Habyarimana batagatifuza urupfu rwe, abandi bakamwita intwari, leta y’Ubufaransa yashyigikiye gahunda ye, banashyigikira abayishyize mu bikorwa. Gushyigikira ubugome ntibuganze, ntibyoroshye kubibana. Iyo abajenosideri bo muri MRND-CDR-PAWA baba bafite ubutegetsi i Kigali, mu mazu y’ubutegetsi bw’i Paris haba hari amahoro nta kimwaro. Na Rusesabagina abura amahoro kubera ko inshuti ze Jenerali Augustin Bizimungu na Theoneste Bagosora batari mu butegetsi bw’ingabo z’u Rwanda.

Ikimwaro mu mucamanza

Gusohoka kw’ibirego bya Burguière, byabashije kwerekana icyo abantu batekereza n’icyo abantu bahuriraho n’abandi cyane cyane ab’impuzamugambi. Rusesabagina yikuye mu bwihisho ajya ahagaragara. N’umuyobozi mukuru w’ikinyamakuru Umurabyo, Nkusi-Uwimana Agnès yagiye muri iyo nzira.

Nkusi-Uwimana yahuje umugambi n’abandi, mu nyandiko ye yise “Uwishe umututsi mu mazi abira, uwishe umuhutu mu mudendezo: Gutandukanya interahamwe y’umuhutu n’interahamwe n’interahamwe y’umututsi ntibizorohera umunyarwanda” (Umurabyo No 10, 8-22 Ukuboza 2006 urup. 2) Iyo nyandiko yari iherekejwe n’ifoto ya Col. Theoneste Bagosora, ahambiriwe amapingu.

Muri iyo nyandiko, Agnès nawe ashimangira ko ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana byabaye “intandaro y’ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwabereye mu gihugu cy’u Rwanda.” Yirinda gukoresha ijambo jenoside, ari mu rwego rwo kuyihakana, aho agira ati: “Abahutu biraye mu batutsi barabatemagura ndetse n’abahutu batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwariho, ni ukuvuga abari ibyitso by’Inkotanyi barishwe”. Muri iyo nyandiko, agaragaza ko iyo jenoside adashaka kuvuga yakurikiwe n’ubwicanyi ngo bwagiye bukorwa mu ibanga, bugahitana abashaka kwishyira hejuru cyangwa ushaka “kurwanya ubutegetsi.”

Akiri ku rupfu rwa Habyarimana, yita intandaro ya jenoside, Nkusi-Agnès agira ati “…bamwe mu banyarwanda b’abanyabwenge bakomeje gukora iperereza kugira ngo uwahanuye indege ya Habyarimana amenyekane, dore ko ari nawe wabaye nyirabayazana w’ubwo bwicanyi ndengakamere, umucamanza Bruguiere w’ubufaransa asohoye raporo iriho abayobozi icyenda bakoze icyo cyaha, harimo na Perezida w’u Rwanda Paul KAGAME, igihugu gicika umugongo, induru ziravuga reka sinakubwira…”

Nyuma yo gusohoka kw’iyo nyandiko, abanyamakuru b’abahwituzi, bamaganye uwo mwanditsi, nyuma Nkusi-Agnès yumvikana ku maradiyo mu gihugu, ndetse no kuri Televiziyo, avuga ko asabye imbabazi kandi ko azandika inyandiko ikosora ibyo yanditse. Ibyo byo gukora ishyano ugasaba imbabazi za nyirarureshwa, bisa nkaho dusabwa kubimenyera. Hari iby’abishe abantu bakabamara, bagasaba imbabazi nkuko biteganywa n’itegeko. Icyo bavanamo ni igihembo cyo gufungurwa abandi bakagana akazi k’imirimo nsimburagifungo. Ikibazo cyo kwamamaza ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ntigikwiye kugarukira aho kuko byaba ari ukwibeshya. Umuntu wanditse akanakwiza ibitekerezo bya kirimbuzi nk’ibya Nkusi-Agnès, ntacyo yakosora akoresheje inyandiko ngo bigire icyo bimarira abasomyi, kandi abantu batazi inkomoko y’ibyo bitekerezo.

Uhereye ku nyito y’inyandiko ye, abafobya n’abahakana jenoside bahora bagaragaza ko ngo hari impande ebyiri zakoze icyo cyaha mu Rwanda. Ibyo kuvuga ko hari Interahamwe z’abahutu n’iz’abatutsi nicyo bivuga, umusomyi akibagizwa ko ijambo “Interahamwe” rifite ba nyiraryo babayeho banafite n’umugambi uzwi.

Icyo gitekerezo cyo gushaka kugaragaza ko habaye jenoside ebyiri, kiri no mu nteruro yo kuvuga ngo “Uwishe umututsi…, uwishe umuhutu…”. Ifoto ya Bagosora iri muri icyo kinyamakuru ku mpapuro ebyiri, urwa mbere n’urwa kabiri, ihagarariye umuhutu wishe umututsi. Abo Bruguière ashinja bagahagararira abishe umuhutu.

Umurabyo wa Kangura

Utazi itangazamakuru ryamamaje jenoside mbere na nyuma ya Nyakanga 1994, ushobora kwibeshya ko Nkusi-Agnès ashobora gukosora inyandiko y’ibyo yasohoye muri iyo nomero y’Umurabyo. Ibikubiyemo ni ingengabitekerezo ifite inkomoko mu mateka kwamamaza jenoside yakozwe mu w’1994, ikorewe abo Nkusi-Agnès yita “Ibyitso by’Inyenzi”—gahunda y’Impuzamugambi-CDR n’Interahamwe. Ibinyamakuru by’abajenosideri byakoresheje kenshi ayo magambo “inyenzi”, “ibyitso”, “umwanzi”, n’ibindi bishaka kuvuga ikintu kimwe: Umututsi.

Urugero rw’aho umuyobozi w’Umurabyo ahuza na Kangura ni henshi. Aha mbere ni aho Nkusi-Agnès avuga ko abishwe bari ibyitso by’Inkotanyi.

Aho ni he? Mu mwaka w’1992 nibwo ishyaka ry’Impuzamugambi – CDR ryavutse.

Nyuma yo kuvuka kw’iryo shyaka ry’inkoramaraso, ikinyamakuru Kangura kizwi amatwara yacyo yo kwamamaza jenoside, cyasohoye “Numero Special” yamamazaga ishyaka CDR. Ku rupapuro rwa mbere rw’icyo kinyamakuru, hari handitse ngo “Inyenzi n’ibyitso byazo birahungira he ko ishyaka ry’abahutu ryavutse ku mugaragaro?” Ku rupapuro rwa nyuma, munsi y’ifoto y’uwari Perezida w’iryo shyaka, Martin Bucyana, handitse ngo “…Ishyaka CDR rigizwe na rubanda nyamwinshi niryo rizumvisha Inyenzi n’Ibyitso.”

Uretse iyo numero yanditswe mbere ya Mata 1994, Umurabyo unahuza na za Kangura zandikiwe hanze y’u Rwanda, nyuma ya guverinoma y’abajenosideri guhunga. Iyo uzisomye, ikivugwa ni uko neza ubwicanyi bwabaye mu minsi ishize usanga ntawabuteguye. “Abishe Habyarimana ni bo bateguye umugambi wabo maze abaturage baratungurwa bumva ko bibarangiranye. Nibwo mu gihugu hose habaga ubwicanyi bwahitanye inzirakarengane nyinshi. Hapfuye ibyitso by’Inyenzi koko, ibyo birazwi.” (Kangura No 60, 1 – 15 Septembre 1994 p. 7)

Mu gushimangira igitekerezo cy’uko abapfuye ari ibyitso, iyo nomero ya Kangura yagize iti: “Habyarimana akimara gupfa hatangiye ubwicanyi, butunguranye… ibyitso byarishwe, muri uko kwicwa hapfuyemo n’izindi nzirakarengane nyinshi, abahutu batavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi baricwa, imirambo itondekwa ku muhanda. Isi yose yari ihagarariwe na MINUAR isanga ibyo bintu bitakwihanganirwa …” (p. 10)

Ari Nkusi-Agnès na Kangura, barita abatutsi ‘Ibyitso’ kugira ngo byumvikane ko abantu batazize ubwoko ahubwo baguye mu ntambara. Kuri Kangura abahutu bishwe mu gihe cya jenoside baritwa inzirakarengane kumvikanisha ko baguye muri gahunda itabagenewe. Ariko kuri Nkusi-Agnès, kimwe na Ngeze Hassan, na Rusesabagina, abishe Habyarimana ni bo bakoze jenoside. Niho Nkusi-Agnès yaciriye urubanza abaregwa na raporo ya Bruguière, ko ari bo bakoze icyo cyaha we atita jenoside.

Muri iyo Kangura baratangaza ko “nta jenoside yabayeho mu Rwanda” (p.12). Abanditse iyo inkuru bayikeshaga Abafaransa bavugaga ko ngo habaye “ubwicanyi ku bice byombi”. Igitekerezo gihura n’icy’Interahamwe z’ibice bibiri kivugwa n’Umurabyo mu w’2006.

Ingengabitekerezo yo guhamya ko abakoze jenoside ari abo Bruguière yareze nacyo si icya Rusesabagina na Nkusi-Agnès bonyine. Nacyo bagihuza na Ngeze Hassan wa Kangura uvuga ko abahutu batigeze bakora jenoside, ahubwo bashotowe maze bakitabara. Ibyo akabishingira ku byigeze kuvugwa na Perezida Kayibanda Gregoire ko umunsi abatutsi bageze i Kigali, bizaba iherezo ry’ubwoko TUTSI.

Ubwanditsi bwa Kangura bwashyizeho amahame yo guha agaciro genoside. Irya mbere ni ukuvuga ko “Kuva kera Inyenzi zari zizi yuko zigize agace k’igihugu zifata, abahutu batabyemera ndetse ko umujinya wa rubanda wahindukirana bene wazo”. Irya kabiri bagira bati: “Buri gihe mu Rwanda niba haragiye habaho ipfa ry’abatutsi babaga ari bene wabo bashotoye abahutu.” (Kangura No. 69, Gicurasi 1995, p. 7)

Hari n’aho Kangura ivuga ko “Abatutsi bapfuye mu 1994 bazize itsembatsemba ryateguwe na FPR” (p. 9). Hakaba n’aho bemeza ko imirambo y’abatutsi yatembye ikagera mu kiyaga cya Victoria nta shiti ari abantu bishwe n’abasirikare b’Inkotanyi. Mu yindi numero bise (“Who started genocide in Rwanda?”(Kangura Versions Internationales, No. 71, p. 8)

Iyi ngengabitekerezo yo guhakana jenoside iri no mu mfashanyigisho yateguwe n’ibiro byari bishinzwe ubutasi mu ngabo za X-FAR mu buhungiro, mu nyandiko ndende yakozwe itanga umurongo mushya wagombaga kugenderwaho n’abanyarwanda bari mu buhungiro nk’iminyago. Mu gice bise “Intambara y’indunduro” aho kuvuga jenoside bagira bati: “Tariki ya 06 Mata 1994 mu ma saa mbiri n’igice ya nimugoroba, nibwo Inyenzi-INKOTANYI zifashijwe n’abasirikare ba MINUAR bahanuye indege yari itwaye P[e]rezida wa Repubulika HABYARIMANA Yuvenali… Iyo ndege yicirwamo na Shefu wa Etat-Major y’Ingabo z’u Rwanda n’abandi nka P[e]rezida w’u Burundi NTARYAMIRA Sipiriyani, Umuhutu wari umaze ukwezi asimbuye P[e]rezida NDADAYE Merkiyoro, undi muhutu abatutsi b’I Burundi bari bivuganye azira ubwoko agitorerwa kuyobora u BURUNDI muri demokarasi…Urwo rupfu rwa Perezida wa Repubulika n’abo bari kumwe, rwiyongera ku bundi bwicanyi bwose bwa FPR-INKOTANYI twavuze, byatumye abahutu bumva ko bagiye gushirira ku icumu baramutse badahagurutse ngo birwaneho. Ubwo amoko asubiranamo, Inyenzi zishyigikira abatutsi kwica abahutu.” (Amahame-shingiro y’Ugutsinda kwacu”- Bulengo, Gicurasi 1995, p. 22-23)

Icyo kintu cyo kuvuga ko ababirigi bagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa Habyarimana, FPR kwica abatavuga rumwe nayo, kimwe na jenoside ikorwa itagira uwo yibasira cyangwa hakagira ubwicanyi bukorwa by’amaburakindi, kigaragara henshi mu nyandiko z’abahakana jenoside. Hari aho Kangura ivuga ko Habyarimana amaze gupfa ubutegetsi bwari buriho mu Rwanda bwavuye muri “logique de paix” ngo bukajya muri “logique de guerre”. Kangura iti: “(…) abaturage bagize ubwoba na guverinoma yari imaze kujyaho isanga nta bikoresho bihagije ifite, nibwo habayeho ikintu kimeze nka panique ku nzego zose … ubwo ubwicanyi buba bukomeje gutyo. Aho FPR inyuze ikica abatavuga rumwe nayo muri politike; n’imbere mu gihugu abaturage babyumva batyo. Igihugu kibura amasasu … ariko FPR ikomeza guhabwa amasasu n’imbunda… Ababirigi nabo baha amasasu FPR … Ubwo hagati aho ntambara yabaga mu turere twose ni nako muri Kigali byari bikomeye.” (Kangura No. 67, Werurwe 1995 p. 16)

Guhurirana kw’ibitekerezo, kugendana n’ukw’amezi y’aho ibyateguwe bigira ahagaragara. Nkuko Burguière yatangarije abo yita ba nyirabayazana ba jenoside mu Ugushyingo 2006, mu kwezi nkuko muw’1994, nibwo Kangura yashyize ahagaragara gahunda ya Leta y’Ubufaransa mu gufatanya n’abakoze jenoside gutegura ikirego cya Burguière.

Ibi bikaba bigaragaza cyane ko mu gihe hategurwaga gahunda yo gushyiraho urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ku Rwanda, abakoze jenoside barimo n’abanditsi ba Kangura bakaba bari banazi ko batazarusimbuka, bateguye urubanza rwo kuzagaragaza ko “ubwicanyi bwakozwe n’impande zombi”. Ibyo bikaba byarategurirwaga i Mugunga – Zaire n’i Paris mu Bufaransa.

Ibyo Umurabyo uvuga ko FPR yakoze ubwicanyi bucece bugahitana abashaka kwishyira hejuru cyangwa ushaka “kurwanya ubutegetsi”, bahuza na Kangura. Mu 1995, ubwanditsi bwa Kangura bwavugaga ko FPR n’abayishyigikiye basabye ko hajyaho urukiko mpuzamahanga ngo icyo FPR yashakaga atari ikindi uretse “kwica abahutu bose bagaragaje ko bayirwanya, ko batemera politiki yabo” (Kangura No. 66, Gashyantare 1995, p. 12).

Kangura yanditse ivuga ko hari Komisiyo ibishinzwe yari yarangije gukora iliste y’abantu bose FPR yishe guhera muri 1990, kugeza icyo gihe. Icyo kinyamakuru kikanavuga ko abo bazarega bo muri FPR, bari baramenyekanye, n’ibyaha bakoze byarashyizwe ku murongo. “Twizeye kandi ko, mbere yuko dushyikirizwa urukiko hazabanza kuburana abishe Perezida HABYARIMANA n’abari kumwe nawe. Tuzanaboneraho kumenya icyo abafaransa batekereza ku baderevu b’indege yari itwaye HABYARIMANA bagapfira hamwe. Ubu dosiye yose yarateguwe.” (Kangura No. 62 du 1 – 15 Novembre 1994, p. 14).

Muri Kangura yakurikiye iyo, havuzwe uburyo babona amahanga yitwara mu kibazo cyabo. Ubuyobozi bwa Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika barabutuka, ubw’Abafaransa babuvuga neza. Ntibahishe gahunda yo abicanyi bari bafitiye Leta y’ u Rwanda yari imaze kubatesha. Icyo kinyamakuru cyashyize ahagaragara ibizakorwa n’Impuzamugambi zari mu buhungiro n’ibyo Ubufaransa bwabemereye gukora.

Bagira bati: “Abafaransa bo bari basanzwe bazi ikibazo cy’abanyarwanda. Nta na rimwe bigeze bacyirengagiza. Politiki bakorera u Rwanda ikorwa n’igihugu si umuntu ku giti cye nk’uko abambari ba FPR babikeka. Ibishoboka byose abafaransa bazabikora kugira ngo Arusha yemerwe. Imiryango yose Ubufaransa butanga mo imari igenewe gufasha ibindi bihugu imaze kumva umugambi w’abafaransa. Muri make, iyo miryango, ibisabwe n’Ubufaransa, igomba guhagarika ubutwererane bwayo n’u Rwanda mu gihe abahutu batarataha.” (Kangura No. 63, du 15 – 30 Novembre 1994, p. 7)

Aya magambo avugwa n’Impuzamugambi Ngeze Hassan, ntiyari ubuhanuzi bw’ibinyoma. Kuba Kangura ivuga ko ibyakozwe byari byarashyizwe ku murongo icyo gihe, ntibitangaje. Havugwaga ibintu byateguwe, ndetse bigakorwa. Mu buhamya Jean Kambanda wari Ministre w’Intebe w’ingoma y’abatabazi yahaye abagenzacyaha b’urukiko rwa Arusha, yavuzemo igisa na komisiyo cyangwa komite yo gushakira ibyaha abari muri FPR – Inkotanyi. Hari n’umuryango washinzwe witwa SOLIDAIRE-RWANDA a.s.b.l. wari ushinzwe ako kazi.

Gukomanyiriza no kugambanira u Rwanda mu ruhando mpuzamahanga bikozwe na leta y’ubufaransa cyangwa imiryango ikorera mu kwaha kw’iyo leta, ntibyategereje raporo ya Bruguière. N’ubwo byananiranye, byarakozwe kuva muw’ 1994. Kangura yaciye amarenga ku uruhare rwa Bruguière, yibutsa ko politike y’u Bufaransa ku Rwanda (rw’ubu) idakorwa n’ubushake bw’umuntu ahubwo ikorwa n’igihugu cy’Ubufaransa. Ibisobanuro byatanzwe n’icyo gihugu ko Bruguière yakoze iperereza yigenga nk’umucamanza ni ikinyoma. Raporo ye n’ibirego bye, ni mu rwego rwo gushyira mu bikorwa politike y’Ubufaransa, kuri leta y’u Rwanda itari iy’inshuti zayo.[1]

[1] Iyi inyandiko yasohotse mu kinyamakuru UMUSESO No 272 (p. 8-9) cyo kuwa 23-30 Ubushyingo 2006

One thought on “Rusesabagina, Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’Ikimwaro

  1. Pingback: Rusesabagina ararwaye kandi aricuza cyane « umuvugizi

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