Itangazamakuru ritera inkunga ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside rirasenya ntiryubaka

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Ku wa 23 Ugushyingo 2009 Umuryango w’Abibumbye (ONU) wasohohoye raporo No S/2009/603 yakozwe n’impuguke zashyizweho n’uwo muryango kugaragaza imiryango n’abantu batera inkunga FDLR muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo.

Iyo raporo yari iy’Inama y’uwo muryango Ishinzwe Amahoro ku isi.  Iyo mu rurimi rw’icyongereza, ifite impapuro 288.

Ibyinshi biyikubiyemo bisobanurira uyisoma ngo amenye FDLR icyo aricyo, n’ibikorwa byayo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari n’abayitera inkunga. Ari abanyarwanda, n’abanyamahanga.

Hari abaterankunga baha uyu mutwe amafaranga ariko hakaba n’ababafasha gukwiza ingengabitekerezo yabo, urugero ruri muri iyi raporo ni ishyirahamwe ryitwa Fundacio s’Oliva n’ihuriro ryabo ryitwa Inshuti, rikorera mu gihugu cya Spain.

Muri iyo raporo ariko, hari habuzemo amazina y’abaterankunga babili ba FDLR bakomeye. Abo baterankunga si abandi ni amaradiyo BBC-Gahuzamiryango, na Radiyo ijwi ry’America (VOA-Kinyarwanda/Kirundi).  Aba nibo baterankunga ba mbere kuko inkunga yabo iruta kure iy’amafaranga.

Imitwe ya FDLR n’amashumi yayo arimo RDR/FDU-Inkingi, RUD-Urunana, RNC n’abandi nta nkunga bakeneye kurusha izindi, nko kubona umuyoboro wo gukwiza ibitekerezo byabo. Amateka yo gutangira kwa RDR arabigaragaza.

Abantu kugira inyumvire n’ibitekerezo bitandukanye, n’iyo byaba bibi, ntacyo biba bitwaye iyo bibahezemo cyangwa bakabiganira hagati y’abo babihuje. Kubisakaza ukoresheje radiyo nka BBC, yumvikana henshi kandi kenshi, ni inkunga ihagije ku bashaka gukwiza ubugome.

Kuva aho iyo raporo isohokeye, sindumva umuntu ku giti cye, ishyirahamwe, cyangwa igihugu kiregwa gukorana na FDLR, hari ugaragaza ko ntacyo bitwaye kugirana umubano n’uwo mutwe ugendera ku ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Nyuma y’iyi raporo yakozwe n’impuguke za Loni, BBC-Gahuzamiryango yakomeje gahunda zayo na FDLR nkuko bisanzwe, yo kubafata mu rwego rw’abatavuga rumwe na leta y’u Rwanda.

Iyi myifatire ya BBC-Gahuzamiryango nari narayanditse mbere, icyo nkora ubu ni ukubishimangira no kubisobanura gusa.  Bimwe mubyo nanditse ndabisubiramo.

Nigeze gusoma inyandiko ya Charles Kabonero avuga ngo: “niba umuntu atarahamwe n’icyaha cy’ubwicanyi cyangwa guhakana jenoside, yewe ataranakirezwe, kumwita umwicanyi cyangwa umuntu upfobya jenoside, kuko dushaka gushimisha Leta, bidusigira ikizinga nk’abanyamakuru”. Yongeraho ko n’utari umunyamakuru akabikora akwiye gufatwa nk’ukoresha nabi ubwisanzure bwo kuvuga. (Itangazamakuru, ubwisanzure, FDLR na Jenoside. Umuseso No 372, wo ku itariki 07-14 Nzeli 2009, p.14).

Muri iyo nyandiko nashubije, Kabonero yafashe umwanya munini arengera radiyo BBC, iha ijambo abamamaza jenoside n’abayipfobya. Ni igitekerezo cye, ariko cyatumye mfata umwanya uhagije wo kwandika kuri iyi ngengabitekerezo gica.

Kutamagana abakora ayo mahano, niyo makosa kuko ari no kurenga ku nshingano umuntu aba afite nk’umunyamakuru ndetse n’umunyarwanda. Icya ngombwa ni ugushingira ku ukuri.  Ingengabitekerezo ndayisobanura uko nyumva ni uko iri hakoreshejwe ingero.

Ikiganiro n’Umuseso

Ku itariki ya 28 Mata 2008 nandikiye ibarwa Umwanditsi Mukuru w’Ikinyamakuru UMUSESO biturutse ku inyandiko “VOA na BBC: Impamvu abaturage babakunda, ubutegetsi bukabarwanya” (UMUSESO No 303, wo ku wa 22-28 Mata 2008 p. 9)

Muri iyo nyandiko, hari ibyari byamvuzweho, hakaba ni ikibazo cy’imyandikire, kirimo n’uko nyirayo atashatse kumenyekana. Kudashaka gushyira izina ku nyandiko ifashe igice cyose cy’urupapuro rwa A3, nta n’ifoto, bifite impamvu.

Natekereje ko uwayanditse atari umunyamakuru ahubwo ari umucengeza matwara (propagandist) gusa, bityo akanga ko izina rye rihuzwa n’ibitekerezo bigayitse. Nafashe umwanya wo kubisoma, kubisobanukirwa no kubisesengura, kuko inyandiko nk’iyi nabonaga isobanyiriza itangazamakuru. Urwandiko rwaje gusohoka mu kinyamakuru Umuseso.

Ariko na nyuma nza kumenya ko awayanditse ari Charles Kabonero nkuko yabitangaje mu kinyamakuru cye, ndetse akabinyibwirira.

Nakunze uburyo icyo kinyamakuru cyabyakiriye kuko byashyize izo mpaka mu mateka, na n’ubu zikaba zikomeje kuko hari impamvu. Ibyari bikubiye muri urwo rwandiko, ndabigaruye kuko bifite agaciro gaturuka mu byanditswe, kuko bigifite agaciro.

Umwanditsi w’UMUSESO yashatse kugaragaza ko amaradiyo ya VOA na BBC adakwiye kubazwa ibijyanye no guha urubuga abajenosideri n’abahakana bakanapfobya jenoside. Kugirango umwanditsi yerekane ko ayo maradiyo arengana, akavuga ko no mu Rwanda hari abahaye urubuga abajenosideri ariko ntibabibazwe.

Yantanzeho urugero rw’abahaye urubuga abahakana jenoside, aribo Matata Joseph na Mushayidi Deo. Uwanditse iyo nkuru mu UMUSESO, yemeje ko koko abo bantu bahakana cyangwa bapfobya jenoside. Uko yabyanditse ni byiza, akaba ntacyo yabeshye, kuko yagaragaje ko azi Matata na Mushayidi. Aho dutandukanira ni uko atabagayira ibyo bakora, ahubwo akamamaza ababaha urubuga.

N’ubwo koko naganiriye n’abo ba MATATA, uko ibiganiro byagenze n’uko byarangiye ntacyo UMUSESO wabivuzeho kandi ari ngombwa. Navugiye mu ruhame nsobanura impamvu badakwiye guhambwa ijambo. Natangarije ‘Muruhame’ impamvu nemeye kuvugana n’abantu nka Matata.

Muri icyo kiganiro, nemeye kwihangana ngo abacyumva bamenye neza abo bantu, kugirango binatume bibaza impamvu abanyamakuru b’abanyarwanda bakorera amaradiyo nka BBC-Gahuzamiryango na VOA, batagira isoni zo gutambutsa amajwi n’ibitekerezo by’abantu bakwiza urwango mu nsakazamajwi. Ibyo nashakaga nabigezeho, kuko abakurikiye ibyo biganiro bamenye icyo abo bantu bahatse.

Nyuma y’icyo kiganiro nagiranye na Matata, nkamuca kuvugira “Muruhame”, byasubukuye ikibazo cya BBC Gahuzamiryango, n’uyiyobora ubu, MUGENZI Ally Yusufu.

Ibyo biganiro byabaye intandaro y’inyandiko n’amabaruwa nandikiye MUGENZI, n’iyo nandikiye abayobozi ba ORINFOR na Radio 10.

Ibaruwa nandikiye ORINFOR na Radio 10, nayimenyesheje SENA y’u Rwanda nk’urwego rushinzwe kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside.

Muri iyo baruwa, nk’umunyamakuru nshima ko Radiyo BBC “igira amakuru meza idutangariza kubera ubushobozi n’ubwisanzure bwo kuyatara no kuyatangaza”.

Sinibanze ku gusesengura amakuru meza iyo radiyo itangaza, kuko bisanzwe mu nshingano zayo. Ikibazo cyatumye nandika ni ibiganiro n’amakuru bagira yanduza ubwenge akanarwaza imitima.

Abo nandikiye nabasabye kwibutsa abayobora BBC akamaro ko “kugira ubwisanzure bugira umupaka” kugira ngo abenyegeza “urwango rwatugejeje kw’irimburabwoko” babuzwe ubwisanzure. Nashoje mbasaba ko ibyemezo bikaze “bikwiye kuba none, kuko byagombye kuba byarakozwe ejo hashize”. Kopi y’iyo nyandiko nayihaye MUSESO.

Itangazamakuru si ruhurura

Kuvuga ko abanyamakuru ba BBC na VOA “batinyuka” bagatambutsa ibitekerezo by’ababa baragize uruhare muri jenoside cyangwa abayipfobya n’abayihakana ariryo tangazamakuru ni ugusebya uwo mwuga. Kwemeza ko “abaturage” batagaya ahubwo bishimira ikibi bagakunda abagikora, ni ikosa ridasanzwe n’igitutsi ku bantu bafite umutimanana.

Gutinyuka, aha byari bikwiye kumvikana nko gukora ibidakwiye gukorwa. Uwabyanditse arabeshya abantu abahamagarira kuyoboka iyo ngengabitekerezo. Hari aho avuga ko ntawukurikirana umunyamakuru wahitishije ibitekerezo by’ubugome. Ngo “umunyamakuru si we wabibazwa”.

Umunyamakuru yigishwa, kandi agatozwa kumenya vuba ibidakwiriye mu makuru atangaza. Ibiganiro byinshi n’amakuru ayo maradiyo ahitisha biba byateguwe. Cyane cyane ibiganiro. Umunyamakuru aba yagize igihe gihagije cyo gushungura ibidakwiriye agasigaza ibikwiriye, cyangwa ibyo ashaka  agasigaza ibyo adashaka. Ndetse rimwe ibifite akamaro akaba aribyo bivamo. Abakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside nk’abo muri RDR n’abayikomokaho nka FDLR/FDU-Inkingi barabizi.

Abo bakwiza ibitekerezo by’urwango baba bakeneye urubuga. Bataruhawe ntabwo uburozi bubari mu mitwe bwakwira.

Itangazamakuru ryiza, ni irigerageza uko rishoboye rigatara kanda rigatangaza amakuru menshi, mu mpande zose. Itangazamakuru ryiza ni irivuga ibitagenda rikavuga n’ibigenda. N’ubwo inkuru mbi iryohera abasomyi cyangwa abumva radiyo n’abareba televisiyo, inkuru y’ibyiza byagezweho n’uburyo byagezweho ni inyigisho iba ikenewe.

Umunyamakuru mwiza ni utabogama mu gihe ashaka inkuru iri ahari amakimbirane n’impaka. Yegera impande zose akararama. Ariko, igihe cyose, umunyamakuru yirinda kuba umuyoboro w’ibitekerezo byose yumvise, cyane cyane ibibi.

Hari aho umunyamakuru agomba kubogama

Iyo bigeze mu kurwanya ikibi umunyamakuru agomba kubogamira ku ruhande rw’abarwanya ikibi. Mu gihe hari ukurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo iyihembera, umunyamakuru ntiyajya hombi.

Habaye kurwanya iterabwoba, umunyamakuru nyawe ntashobora kwihandagaza ngo avuge ko nta ruhande afite. Agomba kuba mu ba mbere bakangurira abantu kumenya ububi bw’ibyo bintu kugirango ingufu zo kubirwanya ziboneke. Itangazamakuru rikaba umurongo wo kurwanya ikibi, no gushyigikira icyiza.

Kubiba urwango no gushyigikira jenoside birarwanywa, bigahanwa. Ntabwo bishyigikirwa. Amaradiyo BBC-Gahuzamiryango na VOA asanzwe aha ijambo abantu cyangwa abahagarariye amashyirahamwe apfobya cyangwa yamamaza jenoside, azi ko ari bibi. Amakosa bayakora babizi.

 

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