BBC-Gahuzamiryango yigize umuyoboro wa ba Neo-Interahamwe

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Ndacyari ku kibazo cya BBC-Gahuzamiryango n’umugambi wayo wo kwamamaza abajenosideri n’ababashyigikiye. Mu mwaka ushize w’2011, Bwana Luis Moreno Ocampo, Umushinjacyaha mukuru w’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha (ICC), yakoze raporo kuli FDLR n’ubuyobozi bwayo. Muri iyo raporo, Ocampo yagaragaje uburyo radiyo BBC yabaye urubuga rwamamaza uwo mutwe ushingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Iyo raporo uwayishaka yayibona.

Nkomereje ku nyandiko nise BBC-Gahuzamiryango cyangwa BBC- Gakwizarwango? Mu kindi kiganiro cy’IMVO N’IMVANO cyo ku wa 2 Kamena 2007 kiyoborwa na Mugenzi Ally Yusuf, hari ibyavuzwe nk’ubutumwa mu rwego rw’ibyo icyo kiganiro cyitwa “ubutumwa bakiriye”. Bwasomwe n’umunyamakuru wabo Bartazar Nduwayezu. Ubwo butumwa, kimwe n’ubundi BBC itajya igaragaza ba nyirabwo, bwari bukubiyemo ibitekerezo bipfobya jenoside binateguza iyindi.

Ubwo butumwa mvuga, bwatangiye bwerekana ko ibyo mu Rwanda ari agahomamunwa. Uwabwanditse atangira asasira ubutumwa nyirizina avuga ko mbere ya jenoside, mu gace yari atuyemo “ingo zose z’Abatutsi zari zizwi kandi hagamijwe kubagirira nabi” akaba aribyo byabaye. Ngo ibyo ariko ntibyabujije ababyeyi be kugira inshuti zikomeye z’Abatutsi kuva muri za 59 aho bahishaga izo nshuti zabo mu mitiba.

Ibyo mu ijwi rya Nduwayezu kuri BBC-Gahuzamiryango, nyiri ubwo butumwa agakomeza agira ati: “Ubu muri iki gihe, aho ntuye mu midugudu, ingo zose z’Abahutu cyane abafite akazi n’agafaranga zirazwi. Usanga Abahutu bibombaritse bikomeye naho umututsi niyo yaba akennye agenda yemye. Mu Rwanda ikivugwa n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside isa n’aho igerekwa ku bahutu benshi, kandi irarushaho gutanya Abahutu n’Abatutsi kuko igaragariza buri wese ko Abahutu ari babi. Cyakora na none simpakana ko iyo ngengabitekerezo yasaritse Abahutu bamwe baheza inguni. Nyamara perezida wacu avugira ku karubanda ko yahunze ari umwana muto; sindumva na rimwe akomoza ku ngengabitekerezo y’ivangura ubu igaragara cyane mu Batutsi ikaba yibasiye Abahutu. Sindumva na rimwe akomoza ku mibereho y’imfubyi zitari iza jenoside ntizinabe n’iza SIDA. Ubwo se, bariya bana bari munsi y’imisozi bazazira ko ababyeyi babo bari Abahutu? Ubwo se abo bana batagerwaho na FARG, bo si abanyarwanda bayoborwa na Kagame? Iyo avuga ngo aya ni amateka yacu, aba ashaka kuvuga ba nde?  Burya kandi umwera uturutse ibukuru, bucya wakwiriye hose! …Ngarutse rero ku ngingo yo guhisha Abatutsi, ibyo ntabwo byari bikwiye gufatwa nk’igitangaza ahubwo bitabaye ubunyarwanda n’umuco w’umwimerere byaba birangiye. Igikomeye ubu ni uko hari Abatutsi barwana ku bahutu bageraniwe. Akebo kajya iwa mugarura. Umuhutu ugeraniwe muri gacaca usanga ashaka umututsi wamuvugira, wamuburira, wazamuhisha ibihe bikomeye. Murumva se kamere muntu itatuburabuza twese? …Jye mbona iyaba byashobokaga ngo Abahutu benshi batekereza nkanjye kandi batarangwaho ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside cyangwa iy’ivangura, hamwe n’Abatutsi bose batarangwaho ingengabitekerezo y’ivangura ko bamenyana bakagira uruvugiro bagashyira hamwe ingufu zabo, bagafatanya kurwanya ikibi no guharanira icyiza. Urwo ruvugiro ubu ntaruhari kandi ntirunashoboka cyane ko Abatutsi bakwiyemeza kwitandukanya n’iyo ngengabitekerezo y’ivangura baba ari abihanduzacumu…”

Ibyavuzwe muli ibi biganiro bibili nabivuze mu magambo arambuye kugirango yumvikane uko ali. Nkuko nabyandikiye Mugenzi Ally Yusuf mu mwaka w’2008, BBC nka radiyo igira abanyamakuru n’abayobozi bashyira mu gaciro, bari bakwiye kubona ko ibiganiro nk’ibyo, nta kindi biba bigamije uretse gushyira mu kaga karimo n’urupfu igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda.

Uko gutandukanya abanyarwanda ubazanamo ivangura moko (racial discrimination) byiganje muri iki kiganiro. Ingero umuntu yatanga ni nk’ibi  bivugwa na Rutayisire Boniface mu Imvo n’Imvano yo kuwa 25 Mata 2009:  “… abanyarwanda bose baramutse bagize uburenganzira bumwe.  Byabagora kuko nk’umuturage w’uyu munsi wa none urimo kuvuga ariko na none akaba afite umuriro waka ku mutima kubera adafite uburenganzira k’ubucamanza, ejo umuhaye uburenganzira bya bindi byose by’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mwavugaga usanga ari ubusa.”

Rutayisire ati: “Iyo ufashe umuhutu cyangwa umututsi, ukamushyira hamwe n’undi muhutu cyangwa umututsi, ntabwo bose banganya uburemere muri ubwo buhutu n’ubututsi. Iyo ibintu bikomeye hari urenga bariyeri hari n’undi utayirenga kandi bose bitwaga ubwoko bumwe (…) politiki ya FPR ikaba ari iyo gusa n’aho umututsi irimo kumuhindura umwanzi w’umuhutu,… Ndetse sinashidikanya ko abo bantu barimo bababarira bashobora guhura n’ibibazo.”

Kuli 24 Mutarama 2009, mu kiganiro IMVO N’IMVANO, utegura icyo kiganiro akaba n’umuyobozi wa BBC-Gahuzamiryango, Mugenzi Ally Yusuf yari afitemo abatumirwa barimo Umuyobozi wa FDLR, Murwanashyaka Ignace:

Mugenzi: … muraregwa jenoside, mu bayobozi banyu, mu bayoboke banyu bararegwa jenoside. U Rwanda ruravuga ko rudashobora kuganira n’abantu bakoze jenoside, mufite amaraso y’abanyarwanda.

Murwanashyaka:  None se ko Murwanashyaka ubu ndi hano turimo tuvugana nidegembya hirya no hino hari uwari wumva bamfashe kubera jenoside. Ariko ndakeka ko i Kigali abari ku butegetsi…

Mugenzi: Ariko bavuga ko ufite ideologie, ingengabitekerezo?

Murwanashyaka: Umbabarire Bwana Mugenzi. Ndagirango nkubwire ko abongabo bavuga ngo dufite jenoside badashobora no gutembera ino badafite ibyo bita passeports diplomatiques kuko bafatwa. FDLR icyo gihe ntabwo twari ku butegetsi, abenshi nkuko mubizi, njye Murwanashyaka nari ndimo kwiga ndetse n’abenshi mu basirikare dufite ni abasore bari hagati y’imyaka 20-25, 28 ni ukuvuga ko bari abana bari bafite hagati y’imyaka 14-18, none se waba uri umwana w’imyaka 10 ugategura cyangwa ugakora jenoside?

Muzi ko bigeze gukora amalisiti y’abajenosideri ra, none se mwasobanura gute ko abantu bari hejuru ku rutonde abo ba Rwarakabije n’abandi iyo batorotse urugamba iwacu  rubananiye bakajya mu Rwanda ko batabafunga, ko nta rubanza babacira?

Jenerali Major Paul Rwarakabije, hari aho ahuza na Murwanashyaka, ariko bakagira aho batandukanira mu myumvire ya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo. Muri uwo mwaka w’2009, Rwarakabije uregwa ubugwari na Murwanashyaka, yagiranye ikiganiro n’umunyamakuru Philip Gourevitch w’ikinyamakuru “The New Yorker”.

Mubyo Rwarakabije yabwiye umunyamakuru ni ibyo batekerezaga bakiri mu mashyamba, anamubwira icyatumye bahinduka bamaze kugaruka mu gihugu. Bakiri mu mashyamba, ngo bemeraga ko abasirikare b’u Rwanda barwanyaga, ko ari abantu babi kurusha abandi babaho, b’amashitani y’abicanyi.

Icyo Rwarakabije ahurizaho na Murwanashyaka, ni uko nawe avuga ko mu barwanyi ba FDLR abenshi ari bato (kimwe na Murwanashyaka uvuga ko yigaga) badashobora kuregwa jenoside. Kuri Rwarakabije ariko “benshi muri bo bacengejwemo ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ariko si abajenosideri.”[1]

Iyo ngengabitekerezo, nicyo kibazo gikomeye. Na Rwarakabije icyo atumva ni uko kuba umujenosideri bidakenera kuba warishe cyangwa wari mukuru mu mwaka w’1994. Mu gihe umuntu yacengejwemo ibitekerezo byo kurimbura ubwoko, akaba ataragaragaza ko yitandukanyije nabyo aba ari umujenosideri.

Rwarakabije wavuze ko abasirikare bo muli FDLR bayicengejwemo, arabivuga abizi kuko yigeze kuba umwe mubayicengeza, atarabona ko ari amafuti akora, kugeza ubwo afatanya n’abayirwanya, aribo RDF ya leta y’u Rwanda. Na Murwanashyaka arabizi ni uko atamera ko jenoside ari mbi.

N’uwavuka none, mu myaka y’ubukure akaba yarigishijwe ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, kumurwanya biba ari ngombwa mu gihe agaragaza ko adashaka guhinduka. Abenshi mubishe abatutsi mu mwaka w’1994, muw’1959 bari bataravuka. Mu gihe jenoside yategurwaga, inshingano y’ibinyamakuru nka Kangura na RTLM byari ukwibutsa no gushimangira ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yabibwe na ba Gregoire Kayibanda, Anastase Makuza, Habyarimana Gitera….n’abandi.

Uyu munsi i Burayi ntawakwihandagaza ngo yigishe urwango ruganisha mu gutoteza abayahudi, ngo hanyuma aburane atanga impamvu ko Hitler n’aba Nazi be bategekaga ataravuka. Icyo bareba kandi barwanya n’ibyo uvuga cyangwa ukora n’ingaruka zabyo. Ntushobora gukora politiki mu bihugu by’i Burayi uvuga ngo amategeko ahana jenoside no kuyipfobya nta gaciro afite ngo wumve ko uzemerwa. Mu Rwanda, hakaba abumva ko nta kibazo, ntibamware, ndetse ugasanga n’itangazamakuru ribabonamo isoko y’ibitekerezo.

Ku wa 28 Mutarama 2006, wa mutwe witwa RDR washinzwe n’abakuru mubajenosideri, wijihije isabukuru ya 45 ya “Demokarasi na Repubulika”. Murwanashyaka Ignace atarahindura imitwe, yari umurwanashyaka wa RDR ndetse ayihagarariye mu gihugu cy’u Budage.

Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, nk’umukuru wa RDR yashoje ijambo yavugiye mu bu Hollandi icyo gihe avuga ko uwo munsi mukuru bijihije waba “imbarutso y’ibitekerezo byatuma babona byihutirwa inzira n’uburyo bwo kubohoza abaturarwanda bagoswe n’agatsiko k’abagome ba FPR …”

N’ubwo IVU afunze, aracyari umukuru w’uwo mutwe. Igihe cyose uzasoma iri jambo “agatsiko” icyo abahuje ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside na Ingabire baba  bavuga, ni abatutsi. N’aho bavuga ‘abanyarwanda’ cyangwa ‘abaturarwanda’ bakaba bavuga abahutu.

Nyuma y’imyaka itanu abivuze, abo muri Rwanda National Congress ya ba Kayumba Nyamwasa, Rudasingwa Theogene na bagenzi babo bakaba babisubiramo basa n’abavuga ko batanzwe.

Muri iryo jambo IVU yabaye umuvugizi wa FDLR avuga ko ngo we n’abo ayobora bemeza ko amahoro mu karere k’ibiyaga bigali atazazanwa gusa n’ukwamburwa intwaro no gutaha kw’ingabo za FDLR. IVU atangaza ko ahubwo amahoro nyakuli azazanwa n’uko ikibazo cy’ubutegetsi n’imitegekere kili hagati y’abanyarwanda cyabonewe “igisubizo nyacyo”.

Icyo gisubizo kikaba ari uko “abanyarwanda” basubizwa uburenganzira bwabo bavukijwe. Ati: “Twiyemeje rero guhagurukira hamwe tukarwanira ko abanyarwanda basubizwa ubwo uburenganzira bwabo kandi tuzatsinda.”

Ibyo IVU yavugaga ni imvugo iri mu ngengabitekerezo ya Parmehutu yari mu ndirimbo y’Abanyuramatwi “Turatsinze ga ye!” ivuga ko Rwanda yabonye “bene yo”–gahutu akaba yaragombaga kuganza nta mpaka. Ingabire n’abo avugira, ntibarwanya Perezida Kagame kuko ategeka nabi. Bamuharanya kuko ari mu muyobozi bumva ko batari mu maboko y’abo Parmehutu yavugaga ko aribo ba nyiri u Rwanda.

Ku itariki 09 Mutarama 2010 mu gitondo hari ikiganiro IMVO N’IMVANO kiyobowe na Mugenzi Ally Yusufu (AYM) cyatangijwe na mitingi ya mbere y’Impuzamugambi ziyise Inkingi, mu ijwi rya Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza. Ni impuzamugambi kuko biyise Forces Démocratiques Unifiées (FDU-Inkingi).

Icyo kiganiro cya Mugenzi na IVU nticyari icya mbere cyangwa icya kabiri. Cyari icya kenshi, ariko iki iki cyabaye mitingi kuko ari bwo IVU yahawe rugali akavuga, akinigura akamurimo gasobanura ibyo yavugiye i Buruseli. Akavuga yumva yabaye umuvugizi w’abajenosideri.  Ikiganiro uko cyagenze nafashemo bimwe bya ngombwa bitangirana n’uwahawe urubuga ashimira Mugenzi, no guhabwa umwanya wo gukora mitingi.

Uko ikiganiro cyagenze:

Mugenzi Ally Yusuf (MAY): Mme Ingabire ndagushimiye kuba wemeye kuvugana n’ikiganiro Imvo n’Imvano.

Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza (IVU): Murakoze namwe kuba mwaduhaye aka kanya ko gusobanurira abanyarwanda impamvu twafashe icyemezo cyo kugaruka mu Rwanda.

MAY: Uru rugendo mwari mwararuteganije mu kwezi kwa 9 umwaka ushize ariko mugiye mu kwezi kwa 1 umwaka wa 2010! Byahinduwe n’iki?

IVU: Nagirango mbanze mbwire abaduteze amatwi impamvu twafashe icyemezo cyo kujya gukorera politiki mu gihugu.  Ikitujyanye ni uko dushyiriye abanyarwanda ubushake bwo gufatanya nabo gushyiraho ubutegetsi bubaha ijambo…

MAY: … Itegekonshinga urarizi neza, nibyo witeguye kujya gukora na we nk’uko indi mitwe y’amashyaka ikora?

IVU: Itegekonshinga ry’u Rwanda tuzi uburyo ribogamye, tuzi ko harimo byinshi bifutamye, na kimwe muri gahunda ya FDU ni uguhindura iryo tegekonshinga kuko kuba ari ryo tegeko remezo andi mategeko yose aheraho rikaba ririmo ibintu byinshi bifutamye bibuza abanyarwanda uburenganzira bwabo, tuzaberereka turikoreremo uko riri ariko inshingano yacu ya ngombwa ni uko tugira ububasha n’ubushobozi bwo kubanza guhindura ibyo byose bifutamye bibuza abanyarwanda ubwisanzure bwabo. …Ikindi kibamo usanga kibuza abanyarwanda uburenganzira bwabo ni ingingo ya 13 aho bavuga ko umuntu ufite ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside agomba gufungwa, ariko umuntu bamurega ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside wajya mu bucamanza ukaba utashobora gusobanura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Icyo bita ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ni igiki? Ugasanga ari ingingo bashyiriyeho kuvutsa uburenganzira umuntu wese uvuga ibyo bo batifuza. Abantu batabona ibintu kimwe n’ubutegetsi buhari ugasanga bitwaza iyo ngingo ya 13 mu itegekonshinga bavuga ngo ufite ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, ugasanga barayigufungiye. Iryo tegekonshinga rero harimo ingingo zimwe na zimwe usanga zivutsa abantu uburenganzira bwabo, ugasanga rigomba guhinduka. Ariko uko riri twiyemeje kugenda tukagenekereza kugira ngo tubanze tubone ubwo bubasha n’ubushobozi bwo kurihindura.

Ibyinshi Ingabire yavugiye mu IMVO n’IMVANO nta gishya cyane cyarimo ku muntu wari warasomye ikinyamakuru Umuseso N0 376 cyo ku wa 05-12 Ukwakira 2009. Ibitekerezo byose bikubiye mu nyandiko yari muri icyo kinyamakuru “Icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ni intwaro kirimbuzi ya Leta ya Kagame” (p.13&15) Umwanditsi w’iyo nkuru Didas Gasana akaba yaranditse ibyavuzwe n’Ingabire mu kiganiro yari yatangiye i Montreal, Canada kuwa 19 Nzeri 2009.

Muri iyi IMVO n’IMVANO icyo IVU yabwiye abamuteze amatwi ni igitongero gisanzwe mu mvugo ye n’umutwe w’ishyaka rye RDR yisise FDU-Inkingi. Kuba atari mu Rwanda nk’uko muri icyo kiganiro yabigize igisa n’ingemu sibyo byatuma ahakana jenoside ku mugaragaro, Mugenzi akabitekera mu bantu. Mu kinyamakuru Umuseso navuze, Inkiko Gacaca, no guhana ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, umwanditsi yabyise intwaro kirimbuzi z’ubutegetsi yitwa ngo ararwanya.

Ntawukwiye gutangazwa n’ibyo yavuze, kuko avuga ibyo umutwe witwa RDR ushingiyeho. Uwo mutwe IVU yawuyoboye kuva mu mwaka w’2000 kugeza ubu. Kuba waratangijwe n’abagize uruhare muri jenoside, kuyihakana babigize intego. Nkuko biza no kugaragara n’ahandi, abo bahuje ibitekerezo imvugo ni iyo.

Uko guhakana jenoside bikubiye muri iyo myemerere y’uko nta ngengabitekerezo yayo ibaho. Kuvuga ko ibaho bikitwa kubuza abantu uburenganzira bwabo. Uri umuntu usanzwe, nta cyaha cya jenoside kikurangwaho cyangwa utariyemeje ubufatanye mu bitekerezo n’abayikoze, ntiwatinyuka kwihandagaza ngo mu gihugu nk’u Rwanda ntihakwiye itegeko rihana icyaha cya jenoside n’irihanira ingengabitekerezo yayo. Iyo uvuze ko nta ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside, ukabivuga kenshi nta kimwaro n’inkomanga ku mutima, uba uri ruharwa.


[1] The life after: Fifteen years after the genocide in Rwanda, the reconciliation defies expectations. The New Yorker, May 04, 2009 p.46

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