Mu mitekerereze ya MUKEZAMFURA abakoze jenoside ni Intwari

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Na: Ndahiro Tom*

Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda, ryo mu w’2003, rivuga ko Abanyarwanda twiyemeje kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’ibyo igaragariramo byose. Insanganyamatsiko y’umwaka w’2005 mu gihe cyo kwibuka jenoside ku nshuro ya 11 idusaba kwibuka tukanarwanya ingengabitekerezo y’icyo cyaha mu Rwanda no mu mahanga.

Wibutse amahano nka jenoside, ntuzirikane gufata ibyemezo byo gushyira ahagaragara no kurwanya iyo ngengabitekerezo yayiteye, ni ugukora ubusa. Ibyo byemezo ntiwabifata utazi imiterere y’ibyo bitekerezo ari na byo kibazo gikwiye guhangayikisha inyoko-muntu.

Ikinyamakuru UMUSESO No. 213 cyo ku wa 30/03 – 06/04/2005, cyasohoye inkuru ikubiyemo ibyanditswe na Bwana MUKEZAMFURA Alfredi, mu kinyamakuru IMVAHO No. 1046 – Mata 1994. Icyo kinyamakuru cyanditswe kinasohoka mu gihe kidasanzwe mu mateka y’isi, n’ay’Abanyarwanda by’umwihariko. Ikinyamakuru UMUSESO cyayivuzeho, kikimara gusohoka, byabaye ngombwa ko nshaka iyo MVAHO nkayisomera kugira ngo nzayisesengure nayicengeye.

Bwana MUKEZAMFURA Alfred, yakoresheje uburenganzira bwe bwo gusubiza ibyamuvuzweho. Mu UMUSESO No. 216 yo kuwa 29/04 – 05/05, urup. 8, yagaragaje ko umunyamakuru wanditse ku byo yari yaranditse mu gihe cya jenoside, atitaye ku gitekerezo cy’ingenzi cyari mu ijambo ry’ibanze ry’icyo kinyamakuru IMVAHO yari anabereye umuyobozi, mu gihe cya jenoside.

Mubyo yaduhishuriye muri icyo kinyamakuru UMUSESO, MUKEZAMFURA yanditse asa n’uwiregura agerageza kwerekana ko hari ibitekerezo byiza yatambukije mu nyandiko yo muri Mata 1994. Yagize ati: “Uretse no kubyandika gutyo mu kinyamakuru, nta wundi numvanye ubwo butumwa, nta wabuntekerereje, nta wantegetse kubwandika, ahubwo buhuye n’imitekerereze yanjye y’icyo gihe ari na yo yakomeje kundanga kugeza ubu”.

Ubu buhamya budasanzwe ni bwo bwatumye mfata icyemezo cyo kugira icyo mvuga ku byo yanditse muri icyo gihe cy’imiborogo n’imivu y’amaraso yatembaga mu Rwanda. Mu gusesengura no gutanga ibitekerezo, ntabwo nibanda gusa ku ijambo rye ry’ibanze yahaye inyito “TUZA DUTURANE”, ndanakora ku zindi nyandiko ziri muri icyo kinyamakuru.

Ibyo MUKEZAMFURA yandikiye UMUSESO narabisomye nsanga harimo ukuri, n’ibindi bidahuje n’ukuri. Yaratuye, avugisha ukuri. Ibirimo ukuri ni ukuba yemera ko ibyanditswe ari ibye kandi atigeze abihatirwa. Ibi bikaba bimutandukanya n’ababeshya ko bashutswe cyangwa batamenye ibyabaga. Yari afite uburenganzira, bwo guhitamo, gukorera abicanyi no kutabakorera. Hari abanyamakuru batari bake banze kuyoboka iyo ngoma rugikubita. Urugero rw’abo banyamakuru banze gutiza umurindi ba rukarabankaba ni nyakwigendera BYIRINGIRO Seraphin.

Iyo uri umuyobozi w’ikinyamakuru, n’ibyanditswe n’abanyamakuru uyobora, mu gihe byasohotse uba ubifitemo uruhare rukomeye. Nta gitangaza kuba yaranditse ibyo yemera, kandi yari umuyobozi mu itangazamakuru, wari ufitiwe icyizere na guverinoma y’icyo gihe.

IMVAHO mu njyana ya jenoside

Ibinyuranije n’ukuri harimo ubutumwa bwakwitwa ko ari ubwamamaza amahoro bukamagana jenoside n’amacakubiri. Usomye ibyo MUKEZAMFURA yasubije mu Umuseso, utarasomye iyo MVAHO yanditsemo, cyangwa utazi ibyavugwaga icyo gihe, ushobora kwibeshya ko yaba koko yaravugaga ibintu byiza. Aratubwira ko ibyo yavuze icyo gihe nta wigeze abimuhatira, kandi ari umwimerere we. Akaba anabyemera kugeza n’ubu.

Nshingiye ku nyandiko zasohotse muri icyo kinyamakuru ndetse no ku yandi makuru mfite, uko gutsimbarara ni ibintu biteye ubwoba mu gihe tuvuga ko turi mu rugamba rwo kurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo.

Mubisobanuro MUKEZAMFURA yahaye UMUSESO, arahakana ko atari ashyigikiye ibikorwa by’interahamwe. Sinzi uwo yita Interahamwe n’utari yo. Hejuru y’ifoto ya HABYARIMANA Yuvenali yashyize hejuru y’icyo kinyamakuru, handitse ngo “Intwari yaratabarutse”.

Uwo MUKEZAMFURA yita “intwari”, ari mubacuze imashini yo kuzakora jenoside n’ubwo ntekereza ko ari yo yaje kumuhitana. Uwo yita intwari niwe wagiye mu Ruhengeri akivugira ko azamanukana n’interahamwe ze ngo “yazambitse zaberewe”. Uko zamanutse, twarabibonye.

Radiyo RTLM ntizibagirana kubera uko yakanguriraga abantu gukora jenoside. Ku rutonde rw’abatanze imigabane itubutse muri iryo jwi ry’urupfu, n’abarishyigikiye, uri ku isonga ni “Ikinani” cyo MUKEZAMFURA yita “Intwari”.

Nyamara nta gushidikanya ko uwo muyobozi mu itangazamakuru, yari ashyigikiye ibikorwa byose bya guverinoma y’abajenosideri biyise “abatabazi”. Ibyo akaba ari we ubwe ubyivugira mu ijambo rye ry’ibanze ry’ibyo yita ibitekerezo byiza, mucyo yise “ubutumwa nyamukuru”.

Kuri MUKEZAMFURA, guverinoma ya Kambanda igizwe n’abantu b’intwari, (para.2) akanashishikariza abaturage kuyishyigikira: “Guverinoma ya Yohani Kambanda – guverinoma y’abatabazi – yiyemeje guhangana nabyo (ibibazo) yivuye inyuma, ariko ikeneye inkunga ya twese abifuza ko igihugu kiva mu manzaganya.

Iryo jambo “twese” ni we wiheraho n’abari bashyigikiye jenoside icyo gihe, bashaka gukururiramo n’abandi. Na n’ubu aracyatubwira ko ibyo bitekerezo ari ibye kandi akibikomeyeho. Yahamagariraga abantu kumukurikira cyangwa kumukurikiza mu gushyigikira umushinga wakozwe na Guverinoma yatsembaga imbaga.

Niba hari igikorwa cy’abantu bazibukiraho guverinoma ya KAMBANDA n’abo yari hamwe nabo ni itsembwa ry’abatutsi. Nk’uko umugambi wari warateguwe, ukanozwa byitwa kwikiza inzoka n’umwanzi. MUKEZAMFURA we, akaba yarakanguriraga abantu bose gufasha abo bicanyi mucyo we yise kuvana igihugu “mu manzaganya”. Gutsemba igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda bikitwa kuvana igihugu “mu manzaganya”!

Uko guhamagarira abantu bose gushyigikira guverinoma y’abiyise ABATABAZI, byibutsa uwitwa MUTABAZI mu ndirimbo ya BIKINDI Simoni yitwa AKABYUTSO (abantu benshi bazi ko yitwa MBWIRABUMVA), bamubwira mugisa n’indagu ngo “dore intsinzi … fata inkomo ushyire ku mureko uhamagare bene Sebahinzi bose baze mbahe intsinzi, bahamagare…” Hakoreshejwe IMVAHO babonye ubahamagara mu nyandiko!

Muri iryo jambo ry’ibanze, usomye neza, ugahuza inyito n’igika gisoza, MUKEZAMFURA yasaga n’ubwira FPR – Inkotanyi ngo icishe make. Muri iyo mvugo ya “TUZA DUTURANE”, irimo no kwishongora gukabije, ni naho akomeza agira ati: “Abahohotera abandi, abitiranya umwanzi n’umuturanyi badahuje ubwoko, akarere, idini, ishyaka cyangwa basanzwe bafitanye utubazo, baranyuranyiriza guverinoma, ari nako bateza u Rwanda urubwa mu rubuga rw’amahanga, bataretse no gutera umwanzi inkunga, dore ko akaduruvayo mu gihugu ari imwe mu ntwaro ze zikomeye. Yego kurakara bibaho, ariko uburakari budashira bwica nyirabwo.”

Muri icyo gika cy’iryo jambo ry’ibanze, ni ho yakuye bike yita byiza asubiza Umuseso, ariko abyandika igice. Usoma inyandiko nk’ijambo ry’ibanze ntayisoma mu bucagucagu. Iyo ubikoze utyo urajijwa cyangwa ukaba wajijisha abatarabonye umwanya wo gusoma inyandiko ivugwa.

Icya mbere ni uko muri iryo jambo ry’ibanze yongera gusingiza guverinoma y’abajenosideri avuga ko hari abayinyuranyiriza. Bivuga ko iyo guverinoma yakoraga neza kandi ikabikorana ubuhanga. Icya kabiri avuga ngo ni uko hari ibyatezaga urubwa u Rwanda mu rubuga rw’amahanga.

Jenoside yakorwaga, ntiyayibonye? Imirambo yari yuzuye mu mihanda, n’indi itemba muri Nyabarongo amahanga abireba, ndetse na we, ni byo akibonamo ishema ry’igihugu cyacu? Icyababaje MUKEZAMFURA, kugeza ubu, si abantu bishwe urw’agashinyaguro, yababajwe n’ isura y’ubutegetsi bwatsembaga ubwoko. Yifuje ko inzu yashyaga itagaragaza umwotsi.

N’ubwo MUKEZAMFURA yifuzaga ko guverinoma yashyigikiye byimazeyo yakomeza kugira isura nziza, yari akwiye kwibuka ko abatutsi bajugunywe muri Nyabarongo hari abahambwe muri Uganda. Yari akwiye kwumva ko abarobyi b’amafi bo muri icyo gihugu duturanye bahagaritse ibindi bakaroba intumbi z’abanyarwanda, ko bakwiye icyubahiro n’ishimwe kurusha abiyise guverinoma y’abatabazi.

Uko kuroba no guhamba neza abajugunywe mu mazi, abo basare n’abarobyi ntibigeze bitiranya iyo mirambo n’umwanda. Bagaragaje umutima wa muntu, bazirikana icyubahiro umuntu akwiye.

Ibyo gutiza umwanzi umurindi, si ubuvanganzo bwa MUKEZAMFURA. Byari byaravuzwe kenshi mbere, ari mu binyamakuru nka KANGURA n’ibihuje nacyo. Ariko, umuntu yatanga urugero ku byavuzwe na perezida HABYARIMANA Yuvenali mu ijambo rye ryo kuwa 31/12/1990, ngo abantu bagomba kwiyama amacakubiri, ntibatatane, bakazitira abanzi ngo batabasenyera igihugu kandi bakirinda kubatiza umurindi. (Reba IMVAHO No. 876 yo ku wa 7 – 13 Mutarama 1991). Ubwo bumwe ni nabwo bwari philosophy y’impuzamugambi za CDR.

Ibyo kuvuga ko “akaduruvayo” ari intwaro y’umwanzi, kimwe no kuvuga “imvururu”, byakoreshwaga n’abarinda ya sura y’ubutegetsi ari mu rwego rwo kuvuga ko nta jenoside yakorwaga. Imvugo nk’iyo iracyakoreshwa kugeza ubu n’abahakana cyangwa bapfobya jenoside bavuga ko ngo “ubwicanyi” bwatewe n’intambara yo mu Ukwakira 1990, n’urupfu rwa Perezida Habyarimana.

Nkiri ku byo MUKEZAMFURA asanga ari ishema ry’u Rwanda, mu nyandiko ye yo muri iyo MVAHO No. 1046, urup. 8, Kigali: ni nde uzaribara?, hari aho agira ati: “Umuco mwiza wo gutabara abitabye Imana ntiwibagiranye, nta misa, nta sanduku. Ndetse kubera ubwinshi bw’imirambo, hagombye inkunga y’abashinzwe isuku mu mugi.” Harimo imvugo y’ubushinyaguzi ndetse n’ubugome.

Ntibyumvikana uburyo umunyamakuru umenyereye akazi, yakwandika gusa “ubwinshi bw’imirambo” ntagire icyo avuga ku cyateye urwo rupfu rudasanzwe, rutuma abantu benshi papfa bakabura gihamba. Umusomyi yari kubwirwa abapfuye abo ari bo, icyabishe n’icyatumye imirambo yanduza umuhanda bigatuma iba ikibazo cy’abashinzwe isuku.

Kuzira jenoside si ukwitaba Imana, ahubwo ni igikorwa cy’abagomeramana. Abazize jenoside barishwe ntabwo bahamagawe n’Imana yabaremye mu ishusho ryayo. Kuvuga ko abazize genocide bitabye Imana, ni ibyashimangiraga imvugo y’abajenosideri ngo “Abatutsi Imana yarabatanze”, kuko ari byo yitaga “umuco mwiza wo gutabara”.

Ibyo kuvuga ngo “nta misa nta sanduku” sinigeze numva ko aricyo cyagirwa igipimo cy’umuco mwiza wo gutabarana. Ishema ry’u Rwanda ririhe mu gihe abantu bahinduwe umwanda, kugeza ubwo abashinzwe isuku mu mujyi bashimirwa “inkunga” yabo mu kazi basanzwe bahemberwa?

Nta muntu wakwifuriza uwo akunda, ndetse n’uwo ari we wese ko agwa ku gasozi, akahaguma ategereje gukuburwa mu myanda, nk’aho ari amababi y’ibiti yahanuwe n’umuyaga cyangwa imvura.

Ku bantu bemera gikirisitu, cyane cyane Gatolika ifite abayoboke benshi mu Rwanda, isakaramentu ry’abarwayi b’indembe, na misa y’abapfuye ni ibintu biteganijwe. Guhamba mu isanduku na misa bisa nk’aho byinjiye mu muco w’abenegihugu benshi. Ibi, kuri MUKEZAMFURA, nk’umukirisitu, dukurikije nibura izina rye “Alfred”, ndetse akaba ari n’umuyoboke w’Ishyaka riharanira Demokarasi ya Gikirisitu (PDC), yari akwiye kuba abizi, abyemera ndetse akanabyigisha.

Mu muco usanzwe w’abantu, umuntu ahabwa icyubahiro na nyuma y’uko apfa; agahambwa neza n’abavandimwe n’inshuti. Ni nayo mpamvu ubu duhamba mu cyubahiro abakivukijwe. Imitekerereze nk’iya MUKEZAMFURA yo kubona abantu bamwe nk’umwanda ni yo jenoside.  Abategura n’abakora icyo cyaha kiruta ibindi, barimbura abo badashaka babyita kwikiza umwanda.

Mu buhamya bwinshi bw’abacitse ku icumu rya jenoside, twumvise ko hari abisomeraga misa mbere yo guterwamo za gerenade, kuraswa cyangwa gutemwa n’interahamwe n’abari babashyigikiye. Hari abajugunywe mu misarani ndetse n’abijugunye mu byobo ari bazima. Hari abariwe n’imbwa na za nyamunsi, n’abashengukiye ku gasozi. Ibi nibyo muco mwiza wo gutabarana?

Imvugo zijijisha zamamaza ubwicanyi

Ahakorwa jenoside hose, ababa bari ku isonga, ni intiti zibatekerereza. Abo bacurabwenge bakunda gukoresha imvugo isa no gutsinda (euphémisme) cyangwa ishushanyito (métaphore). Izo mvugo zakoreshwaga n’abanyapolitiki n’abanyamakuru bari bashyigikiye umugambi wo gutsemba abatutsi. Nibyo SINDIKUBWABO yakoresheje ashishikaza abantu b’i Butare bari baranze kwica akababwira ko bagomba na bo “gukora” bakirinda kuba “ba ntibindeba”.

Tugaruke ku ijambo ry’ibanze, ririmo imvugo MUKEZAMFURA yita nziza, ndetse yumva ikimutera ishema, yo kuvuga ko yamagana abahohotera abandi. Kuvuga ko ari umwihariko we, ni nko kutubwira ko n’ahandi tuyisanga ari we nkomoko yayo.

Hari abashobora kumva ko byaba biri mu rwego rwo kurwanya nyakibi. Utabishyize mu gihe cya byo n’icyabaga kigamijwe, wabyumva ibitari byo. No muri kwa kuvuga kwe ko “kurakara bibaho, ariko uburakari budashira bwica nyirabwo”, kuri jye MUKEZAMFURA yashimangiraga rwa rwitwazo rw’abakoze jenoside. Ko itsembabatutsi ryatewe “n’agashavu k’abaturage” ngo bababajwe n’urupfu “rw’umubyeyi” wabo. Ni yo ya “kurakara bibaho”.

Inyandiko ifite inyito “FPR yakoze u Rwanda mu nda” (urup.3) y’umunyamakuru muri iyo MVAHO, witwa MUKARUTAMU Agenesta, yemezaga ko jenoside byari “abaturage basubiranamo” bitewe ngo n’abanzi b’u Rwanda barashe HABYARIMANA, kandi ngo we “yarakomakomaga ngo u Rwanda rudacura imiborogo”. Ubuzima  bw’Ikinani bwaba ari bwo bwatinzaga gukorwa kwa jenoside?

Uwo mujinya urimbura abantu wakurikiye urupfu rw’Ikinani nawo MUKEZAMFURA afite uko awuvuga, gusa akirinda kuvuga jenoside. Ati: “Abantu babyumviye kuri radiyo. Mu kanya kangana urwara umugi uba uragurumanye. Agahinda n’uburakari, ibitero by’Inkotanyi, amasasu, imipanga n’amahiri, ubusahuzi, inzara n’inyota umususu no gusuhererwa…” (op.cit. urup. 8)

Ibyo yavugaga ngo “uburakari budashira bwica nyirabwo”, ni ryo rya subiranamo ry’abantu ryo mu ijambo ry’ibanze. Ni ka kajinya k’abantu barakaye bakica abo bitaga abanzi babo ngo barahorera “umubyeyi”, barangiza bagakomeza nta rutangira, bagatangira gupfa ibyo basahuye, n’ibindi — kandi bitari muri gahunda ya guverinoma.

Mu buhamya bwatanzwe muri Gacaca i Butare, ku itariki ya 27 Mata 2005, Senateri IYAMUREMYE Augustin yavuze ko nyuma yo kwicwa kw’abatutsi mu gihe cya jenoside, abahutu na bo bari batangiye gusubiranamo.

Yatangarije abanya Butare ko n’abayobozi b’icyo gihe byabateye ubwoba, avuga ko “…ari Perezida n’abandi, byageze aho babyamagana ku mugaragaro.” Muri abo bandi bafashije SINDIKUBWABO kwamagana kumugaragaro isubiranamo ry’abataragombaga gupfa, barimo KAMBANDA Jean, ndetse na MUKEZAMFURA Alfred wabikoze mu nyandiko ebyiri mu kinyamakuru kimwe.

Senateri IYAMUREMYE yanavuze ko hari abantu bemera ko iyo FPR itinda idafashe igihugu abantu bari kumarana.

Uretse ibyavuzwe na MUKEZAMFURA mu ijambo rye ry’ibanze, ndagirango nerekane ko biruhije kwemeza ko yari yihariye imvugo, icyo gihe. Muri iyo MVAHO, ku rupapuro rwa 6 n’urwa 7, hari amabwiriza 10 “y’umutekano mu gihugu” yatanzwe na KAMBANDA Yohani, Minisitiri w’Intebe wa guverinoma ya jenoside.

Muri ayo mabwiriza, hari ibisa n’ibyo MUKEZAMFURA yita imvugo y’ubupfura, mu gihe agiharanira uburenganzira bw’uko yitwa iye wenyine, nk’inganzo y’umwimerere.  Usomye ayo mabwiriza ya KAMBANDA Yohani, ariko ukanemera ko ibyanditswe na MUKEZAMFURA ari umwihariko we, ntabwo byaba ari ugukabya cyangwa kwibeshya hari uketse ko umuyobozi w’IMVAHO yaba ari na we wateguye ayo mabwiriza, cyangwa yaragize uruhare mu kuyanononsora. Cyane ko yari ay’umukuru wa guverinoma akunda kandi yubaha.

Urugero: Umwanzi wateye u Rwanda arazwi: ni FPR-INKOTANYI. Musabwe rero gusobanurira Abaturage ko bagomba kwirinda icyo ari cyo cyose cyatuma basubiranamo bitwaje amoko, uturere, amadini, amashyaka, inzangano, n’ibindi, kubera ko iryo subiranamo ry’abaturage riha umwanzi icyuho yameneramo. Ariko kandi, abaturage bagomba gukomeza kuba maso, kugira ngo batahure umwanzi n’ibikoresho bye, bamushyikirize ubutegetsi, batabishobora bakitabaza Ingabo z’Igihugu. (Amabwiriza No. 3).

Ibikorwa byo guhohotera abantu, gusahura, n’ubundi bugizi bwa nabi bigomba guhita buhagarara. Niyo mpamvu Ingabo z’Igihugu,… n’izindi nzego z’ubucamanza zigomba guhana zihanukiriye buri wese uzatahurwaho ibyo bikorwa. Igihe cyose bibaye ngombwa mushobora kwifashisha Ingabo z’Igihugu n’Inzego z’Ubucamanza mu guhosha imvururu, mu kurwanya ibikorwa by’ubusambo n’ubusahuzi, no mu gutoza abaturage gukomeza umuco mwiza wo gutabarana no kwirwanaho. ….”

Musabwe gukangurira Abaturage kwima amatwi ibihuha bigamije guca intege abaturage no kubacamo ibice, mukabakangurira ahubwo gushyigikira byimazeyo Guverinoma yabo … no kugarura amahoro mu Rwanda…” (Amabwiriza, No. 4 & 5).

Ku rupapuro rwa 9 rw’iyo MVAHO, MUKEZAMFURA mu nyandiko ye “Gikongoro: ntawe ukira asongwa” yongeye kugaruka ku “Isubiranamo ry’abaturage”, aho agira ati: “Umutekano muke uragenda ufata indi ntera irangwa no gusubiranamo bitewe n’abashaka gusahura buri muntu wese ukekwaho ibintu, gupfa ibyo basahuye bananiwe kwigabanya, kwigabiza amasambu, imyaka n’ibindi bintu byasizwe n’abahunze imvururu; n’abasubiranamo bapfa inzangano bari bisanganiwe.

Aha rero niho umwanzi yabafatira mpiri asanze bariho baryana. Igihe kirageze rero cyo guhosha ibi bintu bakisuganya, bakarwanyiriza hamwe umwanzi wateye u Rwanda. Bitabaye ibyo baba bamuha icyuho kuko bakomeje ibyo barimo byaba ari uguca intege ingabo zacu … Bibuke ko isubiranamo ry’abaturage ari umwe mu mitego umwanzi ateganya kudufatiramo.”

Biragaragara ko MUKEZAMFURA w’IMVAHO, atasobanyirizaga guverinoma kuko yahuzaga kuri byinshi na Minisitiri w’Intebe KAMBANDA, harimo n’icyo bitaga “umuco mwiza wo gutabarana.” Ibyo bitaga “kwirwanaho” byo byari ukwica “inyenzi n’ibyitso byazo”.

Muri make umuyobozi w’IMVAHO ntiyigeze abona ikibazo mu bapfuye bo muri jenoside, we atsinda akayita imvururu. Yanaburiye abanyagikongoro agira ati: “Niba rero ibyo bikorwa by’imvururu bidahagaze, abanyagikongoro murumva uwo mugozi bari kwishyira mu ijosi” Kuri MUKEZAMFURA ikibabaje ni abantu bananiwe kwigabanya iby’abapfuye kugeza n’ubwo babipfa bagasubiranamo. Iyo ni nayo mitekerereze ye kugeza ubu.

Hari byinshi bigaragaza ko imvugo yakoresheje itari umwihariko we gusa. Amagambo nk’ “umwanzi”, “icyitso”, “inzoka”, “inyenzi”, yakoreshwaga kenshi n’itangazamakuru ry’urwango (hate media/medias de la haine) bashaka gusobanura umututsi. Ndetse ingabo za Leta zahozeho zageze n’aho zisobanura umwanzi w’u Rwanda uwo ari we.

Mu itangazo ry’Ubuyobozi bw’Ingabo ryo kuwa 21/09/1992, hasobanuwe icyitwa umwanzi unagomba kurwanywa. Uwo mwanzi yarimo impunzi z’abatutsi, abatutsi bose bo mu gihugu rwagati no mu karere, abahutu batishimiye ubutegetsi bwariho, abanyamahanga bashakanye n’abatutsi cyangwa abatutsikazi, aba nilo-hamitiques bo mu karere, etc.

Iyo havugwaga rero umunyarwanda, cyangwa umutekano w’abantu n’ibyabo, umututsi ntiyabaga ari muri iyo mibare. Iyo ni yo mvugo wasangaga muri Radiyo Rwanda, RTLM, IMVAHO, KANGURA n’ibindi bitangazamakuru byari bishyigikiye ubutegetsi. Itangazamakuru ryamamazaga urwango nta mususu. Nko mu ijambo ry’ibanze rya MUKEZAMFURA, aho avuga ngo “abaturarwanda” abatutsi ntibabaga barimo. Bari mu “banzi”.

Mugenzi we witwa KABANZA Fraterne wari uhagarariye Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Itangazamakuru (ORINFOR) ku Kibuye, muri iyo MVAHO (urup. 12) aravuga ko abantu baho bari bashishikaye bashaka aho umwanzi, ari we Inyenzi-Nkotanyi n’ibyitso bye, ngo byihishe kugira ngo batinjirwamo. Ngo uwo ni wo wari umugambi wabo muri iyo perefegitura. Icyo gice cy’igihugu kirimo Gikongoro, Cyangugu na Kibuye nta rugamba rwigeze ruhabera ngo ruhuze ingabo za FPR n’iza Leta y’abiyise abatabazi.

Uwo munyamakuru KABANZA yananditse ko hari inzego z’umutekano zakoraga. Kimwe n’ahandi, urwo rwego rwitwa urw’umutekano, aho rwari hose mu Rwanda, rwari urwo kunonosora no gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda ya jenoside.

Iyo usomye  icyiswe “Amabwiriza y’umutekano mu gihugu”, usangamo imvugo ngo “abaturage gukomeza kuba maso”, “gutabarana no kwirwanaho”, “kugarura no kubumbatira umutekano”, “kubungabunga umutekano w’abantu n’ibyabo”. Ibi ntibyarebaga abatutsi kuko aho batari barashize, nibo bari ikibazo cy’umutekano muke. MUKEZAMFURA azi neza ko kugeza mu kwezi kwa Gicurasi aho ashobora kuba yarasohoreye iyo MVAHO, nta ntambara yari muri prefegitura za Gikongoro, Gitarama, Butare, Cyangugu, Kibuye, na Gisenyi.

Ndagira ngo nibutse ko nta na hamwe mu nyandiko zanditse muri iyi IMVAHO, havugwa iyicwa ry’abatutsi. Nta n’ikivugwa ku bayobozi b’igihugu bishwe nka Madamu UWILINGIYIMANA Agatha, n’abandi bazize kudashyigikira umugambi wa jenoside. IMVAHO ntiyigeze ibimenya!

Uwo muyobozi w’ikinyamakuru IMVAHO yivugira imvururu, kutarema kw’amasoko, amabanki adafite amafaranga, ibiciro bihanitse, n’ibindi. Ati: “nta gashyimbo, nta kajumba, n’ugafite atabona amakara yo kugateka, … iby’umunyu n’isukari byo ntawubivuga, dore ko ari ikibura bakarya”. (urup.8) Ibi byanteye kwibaza ko nta buryo wahangayikishwa n’ubuzima bw’abantu uri mu kwandika no gutekereza udushyimbo, udusukari n’utwunyu.

Ku bakurikiranye imvugo yakoreshwaga icyo gihe, icyitwa gutera umwanzi inkunga ni ukwica utaragombaga gupfa, kutica uwiswe umwanzi cyangwa gusahura mu ngo z’abagombaga kugumana ibyabo.

Ikindi cyitwaga gutera umwanzi inkunga ni ukwamagana ubwicanyi ku buryo “bitesha agaciro” guverinoma MUKEZAMFURA yita iy’intwari. Imvugo z’incamarenga n’izageragezaga kworoshya uburemere bw’icyaha cyakorwaga, ni zo zari umuyoboro w’amabwiriza n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Ni nako bikunze kugenda ahaba jenoside hose. Nko muri ya mabwiriza, minisitiri w’intebe arangiza avuga ngo : “Ndangije mbashimira uruhare rukomeye mufite n’umurava mukomeza kugaragaza mu kubungabunga umutekano w’abaturage n’ibintu byabo, mufatanije n’Ingabo z’Igihugu n’Inzego z’Ubucamanza.

Nkuko nigeze kubivuga, abanyapolitiki bategura jenoside, biyambaza cyangwa se bafashwa n’abantu bize amashuri ahagije, biyita abanyabwenge.  Nibo bagira uruhare rwo kwumvisha abantu gukora ikibi bacyita cyiza. Rubanda rukayongobeza uburozi rubwita amata. Niyo yari inshingano ya ba NAHIMANA Feredinand, BARAYAGWIZA Yohani Bosco, abanyamakuru batandukanye, ndetse na bamwe mu barimu bo muri Kaminuza.

Urubyiruko rwa none rutazi imvugo y’abajenosideri, rushobora kwibaza ko KAMBANDA yifurizaga abanyarwanda BOSE amahoro. Ariko urwo ruhare n’umurava yashimiraga abantu, ni ubwicanyi budasanzwe buduhoza mu cyunamo. Ni nabyo yitaga kubungabunga umutekano w’abaturage n’ibyabo.

Usomye imvugo “inzego z’ubucamanza”, ntibisobanura inkiko cyangwa ubushinjacyaha kuko izisanzwe zitakoraga. Yabaga avuga za bariyeri, kuko ari ho kubaho kw’abatutsi n’ababagiriraga impuhwe byagenerwaga. Ibi ubyumva neza iyo uzirikanye ibisobanuro byatanzwe n’ uwigeze kuba minisitiri w’ubutabera (sic!), NKURUNZIZA Karoli.

Mu buhamya yatanze mu Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rukorera Arusha-Tanzania, muri Gicurasi 2002, bamubajije icyo bariyeri zakoraga, NKURUNZIZA yasubije ko zakoraga akazi ko kugarura umutekano kuko ngo inzego z’ubucamanza mu gihugu zitakoraga neza.

Kogeza jenoside

Muri ya nyandiko twavuze iri ku rupapuro rwa 8 rw’IMVAHO No. 1046, MUKEZAMFURA yavugaga ko abantu bose I Kigali bashinze ibirindiro kuri za bariyeri, ati: “Kubanyuraho udafite ibya ngombwa byuzuye ni ikidashoboka”. Kuri we, igenzura ryo kuri bariyeri bwari ubushishozi nk’ubw’umucamanza, cyangwa Noteri wa Leta wemeza umwimerere w’inyandiko.  Kuri bariyeri, haragereranywa kandi no ku rugamba kuko ari ho hashingwa ibirindiro. Ibi ni ugushimangira ya mvugo ipfobya jenoside, ko abarenga miliyoni baguye mu ntambara. Abiciraga abantu kuri za bariyeri bakumvishwa ko bari ku rugamba.

Mu buhamya bw’abantu nagiye numva mu myaka 11 ishize, icya ngombwa cya mbere cyabashaga kukunyuza kuri bariyeri, ni ukuba uri umuhutu uzwiho kutajenjekera “inyenzi”, kuba ufite ikarita ya CDR yemewe, kuba uri interahamwe izwi, kuba uri umwe mu bagize imiryango y’abo tuvuze byemewe, kuba uri umunyamakuru w’icyamamare ushyigikira ubutegetsi bwariho, uri umusirikare wa Leta kandi ufite urupapuro rukugenza, no kuba ufite indangamuntu igaragaza ko uri umuhutu kuri bariyeri y’aho utazwi.

Aho kutwemeza ko yandikaga yigisha ibintu byiza, atari nabyo, natubwire abari kuri bariyeri, kuko yazinyuragaho yujuje ibya ngombwa byose, dore ko hari n’abo yamenyaga. Muri ya nyandiko ye abaza ngo “Ni nde uzaribara?” umwanditsi wayo yaravuze ngo “ba bakozi wajyaga usanga mu biro, … bose  bashinze ibirindiro kuri bariyeri.” Ibyo bivuze ko hari benshi yamenyaga, hari n’abo yari azi icyo bakoraga mbere yo kujya kuri bariyeri.

Ntabwo umuntu yasanga abantu kuri bariyeri ngo abashe kumenya ko bari abakozi bo mu biro, abacuruzi cyangwa abashyitsi adasanzwe abazi. Birumvikana ko muri uko kwezi kwa Gicurasi 1994, iyo MVAHO isohoka, MUKEZAMFURA yagendaga hagati ya Kigali na Gitarama, ndetse akabwira abasomyi ko abatuye Kigali babatashya kandi ko  “morali ari yose”. Akanababwira ko umutekano utangiye kugaruka, azi neza ko abantu bishwe bitagira ingano, akanabamenyesha ko ak’umwanzi kashobotse, ko igisigaye ari “ukwishyira hamwe bakamubuza epfo na ruguru”.

Nk’uko tubyibuka, igihe cya jenoside cyaranzwe n’indirimbo n’amagambo y’urwango ku maradiyo abiri yakoreraga mu Rwanda. Radiyo Rwanda na RTLM. Abashyushyarugamba rwa jenoside babo, nka HABIMANA Kantano cyangwa BEMERIKI Valérie, BAMWANGA Jean Baptiste n’abandi, bari bariyemeje gukangurira abaturage ko ibintu bimeze neza, ko ibibazo by’u Rwanda (abatutsi) bigiye gushira. Bikaba nk’umukirisitu uvuga ijuru.

Abanyapolitiki nabo babatizaga umurindi, dore ko banafatanyaga guhanga ubutumwa bugenerwa abo bitaga abaturage, batari bafite uruhare mu gucura umugambi w’ubwicanyi, bityo bakaba baragombaga kubikangurirwa.  Abanyamakuru bamamazaga cyangwa bashishikarizaga abantu gutsemba abatutsi. Iyo bitaba ibyo umuturage usanzwe, ntiyari kwibwiriza kujya kwica umuturanyi inshuti ye, n’umuryango yashatsemo umugeni cyangwa yashyingiye.

Ku itariki 5 Kamena 1994, RTLM imaze guhitisha ijambo rya KAMBANDA Yohani wari wasabye abakuru b’ingabo ko umusirikare usahura agomba gufatwa nk’umwanzi “bakamuhana batajenjetse”. RTLM na Radiyo Rwanda byahitishije ijambo rya KAMBANDA Yohani, ugishimwa na MUKEZAMFURA kugeza n’ubu, avuga ko intambara barimo yari iyo “kwica ku nyenzi n’agasuzuguro kazo”.

Ni muri iri tangazo KAMBANDA abwira abasirikare ngo nibashirike ubwoba. Bateshe umutwe umwanzi, bamutsembe aho ari hose, ati: nimuhaguruke … mumutemere aho ari hose … nimumutsembe mumwambure intwaro ntazongera kurota kugaruka”. Muri iyo mvugo harimo amagambo agizwe n’inshinga gutsemba no gutema umwanzi aho ari hose”. Ibyo ni byo byitwaga kwambura umwanzi intwaro.

Mu gushyigikira iryo jambo, BEMERIKI Valérie wa RTLM agira ati: “Abwirwa benshi akumva bene yo rero, Inyenzi Inkotanyi niba zakurikiye ririya jambo ziryumve zumve ko ntacyo zishobora kugeraho, niba ari n’inyota yo kugarura ya ngoma, iyo ngoma yarasezerewe. Mwene Sebahinzi rero yarahagurutse yarahumutse ntabwo ashobora kwemera ko ingoma yasezerewe na rubanda nyamwinshi kuva muri 1959, ubu nyuma y’imyaka mirongo itatu n’ingahe ari ho iyo ngoma yagaruka, kandi nta n’ubwo igomba kongera kugaruka.”

Iyo mvugo ya BEMERIKI ntaho itaniye cyane n’igika gisoza ijambo ry’ibanze rya MUKEZAMFURA muri ya MVAHO ngo: “FPR yo iti iyo guverinoma sinyemera. Ibyo ntawe bikwiye guca intege. N’ubundi yo n’abakurambere bayo ntibigeze bemera ubutegetsi abanyarwanda bihitiyemo. Ntibyabujije u Rwanda kuba u Rwanda.”

Ku bijyanye n’imvugo “abakurambere” ba FPR byo, ni ingengabitekerezo ya Parmehutu n’irondabwoko ryayo.  Ni ukwasasa ko umuryango wa FPR ari uw’abatutsi nk’uko byavugwaga kenshi na CDR ko yagiriyeho kurengera inyungu z’abahutu. Harimo no guhakana ko abanyamuryango ba FPR atari Abanyarwanda, kuko ari ho imvugo “Abanyarwanda bihitiyemo” iganisha. Naba n’iyo avuga ati “Rubanda nyamwinshi”, byari gupfa kumvikana. N’ubwo nabyo bidahwitse.

Muri ya nyandiko iri ku rupapuro rwa 8, ni ho anavuga ko abaturage bamenye umwanzi wateye u Rwanda … akanavuga ko abaturage “… Bamaze kubona ko umwanzi yabinjiranye, bashyize hamwe bafasha ingabo kumutsinsura no kumubuza kwinjira bucengeri …”. Ati: “Ngabo ku marondo no kuri za bariyeri ijoro n’amanywa, bitwaje intwaro za gakondo ndetse n’udukoresho twa kijyambere…”

Mu rwego rwo kurengera guverinoma yemera idakwiye gusobanyirizwa, MUKEZAMFURA Alfred arongera agahuza na KAMBANDA Jean ku magambo “umwanzi wateye u Rwanda”. Bombi barahuriza kuri ya njyana yo kugaragaza ko uwo bita umwanzi, atari n’umunyarwanda.  N’iyo icyo gihe bari kuba baravugaga ko uwo mwanzi wabo ari FPR-Inkotanyi, ntabwo icyatewe ari igihugu cy’u Rwanda. Harwanywaga ubutegetsi bwariho.  Keretse niba mu mitekerereze yabo u Rwanda ari MRND-CDR-PAWA Inc.

Ndagira ngo nibutse ko ibyari muri icyo kinyamakuru, atari bwo bwa mbere MUKEZAMFURA ahakana cyangwa ashidikanya ko abagize FPR-Inkotanyi atari abanyarwanda. Ndibuka ko hari ikiganiro kirekire yigeze gutegura akagihitisha kuri Radiyo Rwanda mu ntangiriro z’umwaka w’1991 avuga ko Inkotanyi ziyitirira u Rwanda.

Izo mvugo zo “gushyira hamwe” no “gutsinsura” zunganiraga Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi mu mugambi wazo w’ubugome wo gutsemba, kuko intwaro za gakondo zitari izo kurwanya abasirikare ku rugamba. Bimwe mu byitwa “intwaro za gakondo” byari ibikoresho by’ubuhinzi bisanzwe, bikaba byarakoreshejwe kwikiza uwo bise “umwanzi aho ari hose”. Bahereye ku bo baturanye.

Muri izo ntwaro MUKEZAMFURA avuga, uretse imipanga, inkota, udufuni, amashoka, inyundo, n’impiri zirimo imisumari byari bizwi, hanakoreshejwe n’uburyo bushya bw’ubugome. Ubwo ni nko kuboha abantu bakajugunywa mu migezi, kubajugunya mu misarani, kubata muri za ruhurura, kubahamba babona, gufomoza abagore, gusambanya abakobwa n’abagore ku ngufu barangiza bakabashyiramo ibisongo, amabuye y’iradiyo n’ibindi.

Ibyo MUKEZAMFURA yita “udukoresho twa kijyambere” mu mvugo yo kubyinirira, ugenekereje, yavugaga imbunda na za gerenade zakoreshwaga mu kwica abantu benshi icyarimwe cyangwa guca intege abagerageje kwirwanaho.

Abantu benshi interahamwe zatsinze muri za Kiliziya, bicishijwe “udukoresho twa kijyambere”. Iyo nganzo yo kubyinirira za gerenade n’ubwo yaba ari umwimerere, si iyo kwigamba nk’aho ari igitekerezo cyiza. Ni ukwamamaza no gusingiza ubugome.

Uko gushyushya imitwe kw’abanyamakuru nka ba MUKEZAMFURA, byicishije abaturage benshi cyane b’injiji bakurikizaga amagambo bumvise muri radiyo cyangwa babwiwe n’abasomye IMVAHO. Uwatyaje umupanga we nta mututsi agifite wo kwica (kuko ahenshi icyo gihe bari barabamaze), upfumbase gerenade cyangwa ucigatiye imbunda bamwerekereye uko iraswa- bumvaga babonye ubushobozi budasanzwe bwo guhangara abasirikare b’Inkotanyi.

Mpinire aha

Simbyise umwanzuro kuko ntaho nahera nanzura ku mitekerereze ishyigikira jenoside. Mpere he? Ntaho! Nakwanzura nte, ibyo navuze ari bike? Hari n’ibindi byaba byaranditswe cyangwa byarakozwe bitaramenyekana. Nta mwanzuro nabona, ntanasobanukiwe n’icyateraga abantu “morali” mu gihe cya jenoside, kandi MUKEZAMFURA acyemeza ko yari ihari.

Jye nibuka ko mu gihe iyo IMVAHO ye yasohokeye abantu ibihumbi magana bari barishwe abarokotse barasizwe iheruheru. N’abo bari bakiriho bari batararokoka kuko bari bacyicwa. Jenoside, yo bitaga “gukora” no “kubungabunga umutekano” yari igikomeza.

Nta mwanzuro nabona nzi ko abazize jenoside barinze bapfa badasobanukiwe icyo bahowe. Kuba icyo uri cyo nticyaba icyaha cyatuma umuntu apfa urw’agashinyaguro agahinduka umwanda uharirwa abahemberwa gukora isuku. Abanze kwica cyangwa gushyigikira uwo mugambi nabo ntiwabona uko ubavuga ngo wihutire kwanzura.

Umuntu ni umunyagitinyiro akaba agomba guhorana uburenganzira bwo kubahwa. Upfuye ntiyitwa ishingwe. Umuntu si nk’imbwa cyangwa injangwe byagonzwe n’imodoka mu muhanda. N’iyo ba nyiri ayo matungo bamenye impanuka zabaye ku matungo yabo, ntibemera ko aborera mu muhanda ngo anukire abagenzi mu gihe abashinzwe isuku batarakora akazi kabo.

N’abarokotse ubwo bwicanyi bw’itsembabwoko ntawushobora kukubwira ko azi neza icyabiteye. Iyi ni nayo mpamvu uko imyaka yicuma, ihungabana ryiyongera. Iryo hungabana riterwa no kwiyongera kw’ibibazo byibazwa ndetse n’urusobe rw’ingaruka za jenoside.

Kimwe mu bibazo byiyongera mu bihasanzwe ni ukuba nyuma y’imyaka 11 MUKEZAMFURA adutangariza ko ibyo yakoraga ari byiza ku buryo adakwiye kubigayirwa. Ahubwo ikibazo kikagerekwa ku munyamakuru wabivuze gusa.

Ntibyorohera  abantu kwemera uburyo umuntu yadukira uwo batagira icyo bapfa akamwica. Undi agafata uwo bagira icyo bapfana akamujugunya ahagenewe imyanda irimo amazirantoki. Benshi mu baturage bakoze ayo marorerwa, bashishikajwe n’itangazamakuru kujya mu bikorwa by’umushinga wa jenoside bahora badutangariza ko bashutswe. Hari n’abagaragaza kwicuza nyakuri ari nacyo gifasha inkiko Gacaca.

Mu gutanga ibisobanuro kwe mu kinyamakuru UMUSESO, MUKEZAMFURA asoza agaragaza ko cyamusebeje, ngo bikanamutera “icyasha kitazasibangana”. Byabaye nkaho iby’ingenzi byanditswe n’icyo kinyamakuru byari bishya kuri we. Icyo UMUSESO wakoze, ni ku nyungu y’abatazi uburyo IMVAHO yashyigikiye ikanamamaza jenoside, ngo tutazazira kutabimenya.

Birumvikana ko hari akababaro yatewe n’ikinyamakuru cyamutamaje kigatangaza ibyo bamwe tutari tuzi. Hari icyubahiro cyari gishingiye ku ibanga rihishira ibishyigikira nyakibi. Ibyo kumva ko bamusize icyasha, ni agashinyaguro karenze. Nabigereranya n’ururimi rw’inkota rurigata mu gikomere rwateye.

MUKEZAMFURA yari akwiye kwicuza ibyo yakoze yicishije bugufi, agasaba imbabazi abanyarwanda, n’inyokomuntu muri rusange. Ibyo nibyo byaba intango yo kuba yakongera guhabwa icyubahiro yitesheje mu gihe yiyemezaga kuba umwambari w’ingoma y’amaraso.

Icyasha “kitazasibangana” avuga ko yatewe n’UMUSESO, niba kinahari, gihuriye he n’intimba idashira yatejwe n’abajenosideri yafatanyije nabo?

Kuvuga cyangwa gutangariza rubanda ibyateye u Rwanda ibyago si ibyo gutera umuntu isoni. Abakwiye kugira ipfunwe si ababwira abanyarwanda iby’abakoze u Rwanda mu nda n’ababishyigikiye. Jenoside si icyasha, ahubwo ni ICYAHA KIDASAZA.

MUKEZAMFURA washimagizaga ibyakorwaga mu 1994 nk’igikorwa cy’ubutwari, ndetse akanabishishikariza n’abandi, kugeza ubu aracyabikomeyeho. Nemera ko afite uburenganzira bwo kugira ibitekerezo bye no kubitangaza. Ndetse nemera ko hari abatarababajwe n’abazize jenoside. Ariko, sinemera ko hari uwo biha uburenganzira bwo gukoresha itangazamakuru yigamba ko gushyigikira abiyise “abatabazi” ntacyo bitwaye. Keretse abatabazi. Ni ugupfobya jenoside, kandi ni icyaha kibi cyane. (Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda-2003, Ingingo ya 13)

KAMBANDA Yohani yemeye ko yakoze jenoside n’ibijyana nayo. We, kimwe na bamwe mu bo bari bafatanije muri ya guverinoma, ubu barakatiwe barafungwa byo twagereranya no gusarura ibyo babibye.  MUKEZAMFURA Alfredi we, kugeza ubu, aracyatekereza ko abajenosideri ari intwari. Ubutwari bwo kwica impinja umuntu abusobanura ate?

*Iyi nyandiko yanditswe, Kandi isohoka mu kinyamakuru UMUSESO mu mwaka w’2005.

One thought on “Mu mitekerereze ya MUKEZAMFURA abakoze jenoside ni Intwari

  1. Icyo nzi cyo nuko interahamwe zitigeze ziberwa na rimwe. Basaga nka amabandi utagomba kwegera ngo umenye ko anuka icyaha, bari ibisinzi byarenzwe n’ ubugizi bwa nabi n’ubugome bukabije. Sinumva rero umuntu utekereza wabagira intwari.

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