Habyarimana n’Abagome n’Abagambanyi mu mugambi wa jenoside

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Na: Tom Ndahiro

Nagiye numva abantu batari bake bavuga jenoside nk’icyaha kivuga kwicwa kw’abantu b’ubwoko ubu n’ubu, ariko bakareba ahanini umubare minini w’abishwe. Kwumva neza icyo cyaha bisaba kwumva imitere yacyo, byumwihariko kwita ku byiciro icyo cyaha kinyuramo gitegurwa. Kumenya ibyo byiciro, nkuko byasobanuwe n’umuhanga witwa Dr. Gregory Stanton, bituma umuntu abasha gusobanukirwa gato, igituma hari abantu badukiriye abaturanyi babao bakabica kandi mu mibereho isanzwe ntacyo bapfaga.

Muri ibyo byiciro Stanton yavuze, harimo icyitwa Polarization umuntu yagereranya no kurema ibice bibiri by’abantu bidakwiye kandi bidashoboka guhura cyangwa guhuzwa. Harimo no kurema imitwe yo gutera abantu ubwoba no kwica ngo abantu bakomeze kwishishyany kubera urwango rubibwa.

Ndibanda kubyabaye mu Rwanda. Mu itegurwa rya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, cyane cyane ko ariyo nabera umuhamya, ikaba yaramenywe ikanemezwa.

Uwari perezida w’u Rwanda mu mugambi wo gutegura jenoside, yari Juvenal Habyarimana. Mu 1992, yigeze kwivuga ko ngo ari: “Ikinani cyananiye abagome n’abagambanyi”. Nyuma y’ubwo yakomeje kwitwa “Ikinani”.

Muri iki cyivugo, harimo Habyarimana n’abo bahuje ku ruhande rumwe n’abo yitaga “Abagome n’abagambanyi” ku rundi ruhande. Kuri urwo ruhande rwe, hari Abahutu bahuje umugambi nawe mu kwanga no gutoteza Abatutsi. Abo bandi, “Abagome” bari Abatutsi bose kuko n’ingabo z’igihugu (FAR) zaje kubita abanzi muri uwo mwaka mu nyandiko yasobanuye umwanzi uwo ari we.

Umututsi nk’umwanzi

Iyo nyandiko yo ku itariki 22 Nzeri 1992, yatanze uruhushya rusesuye ku muntu wese kwica umututsi kandi ntihagire kuko yari yasobanuwe ko ari “Umwanzi”. Ibi kandi ntibyari bishya kuko byari bimaze igihe. Itegeko rya munani muy’Abahutu nkuko yanditswe na Kangura No 6 yo mu Ukuboza 1990 ryavugaga ngo “Birabijijwe kugirira impuhwe umututsi.”

Abantu bajya bibaza icyo iryo tegeko ryasobanuraga n’ibyo basabaga kutagira impuhwe? Kubona umuntu ari mu byago ntumugoboke? Gusanga umuntu arwaye ntumutabarize cyangwa ntumuvure? Kubona umuntu arengana ntumurengere? Utatse ntatabarwe? Urira ntahozwe?

Kangura mu mategeko yayo 10 agenewe abahutu, yari yarasobanuye abagomba kwitwa abagambanyi. N’ubwo uwanyuranyaga n’ayo mategeko yafatwaga nk’umugambanyi, ariko hari amategeko yasobanuye by’umwihariko abagomba gufatwa nk’abagambanyi.

Itegeko rya mbere rivuga ko azafatwa nk’umugambayi uzakora ibibujijwe aribyo gushakaho umututsikazi nk’umugore, kumugiraho inshuti, kumugiraho umunyamabanga cyangwa inkundwakazi.

Itegeko rya kane rikavuga ko undi ukwiye gufatwa nk’umugambayi ari ufatanya n’abatutsi, ushora amafaranga hamwe n’abatutsi, uguza cyangwa uguriza umututsi n’ugira icyo afasha abatutsi.

Undi mugambanyi ni uteganywa n’itegeko rya cumi, uwo akaba ari umuhutu wese uzatoteza undi kubera gusoma, kwigisha cyangwa gukwirakwiza iyi ngengabitekerezo y’abahutu.

Perezida Habyarimana, Kangura, CDR n’ibyabikomotseho byose birimo RTLM, bashyize imbaraga nyinshi mu gitekerezo cy’iterabwoba cyo kwita abantu badafatanyije nabo abagambanyi. Bakoresheje imbaraga zidasanzwe bahamagarira abahutu kunga ubumwe. Ibyo bikaba byaraterwaga no kuba bari bazi neza ko hari bamwe  bitaga ko ‘barangaye’ cyangwa bashobora ‘kugwa mu mutego w’umwanzi’ kubera gukulikirana inyungu zabo bwite.

Habyarimana yivugiye umugambi wa jenoside

Abantu benshi bavuga jenoside ariko byagera ku gutegura no kuvuga umugambi wayo ntibavuge uko umugambi wayo wabayeho. Umugambi wo kwica abatutsi washyizwe ahagaragara na Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana ubwe. Iryo jambo rivuga umugambi watumye igihugu gicura imiborogo ni iryo kuwa 28 Mata 1991 mu ijambo yavuze atangiza Kongere idasanzwe ya MRND.[1]

Iyo yari kongere yo kwivugurura mu ruhando rw’amashyaka menshi. Kuwa 13 Ugushyingo1990 nibwo Perezida Habyarimana yemeye ishingwa ry’andi mashyaka abangikanye na MRND (ivuguruye)

Perezida Habyarimana yasobanuye ko uko kuvugurura byongeraga gushimangira ko MRND ivuguruye ishingiye imizi “ku bumwe bw’imbaga nyamwinshi”, (…) ishimangiye “ku buryo budakuka Repubulika na Demokarasi”.(p.34) Ngo ikibazo cy’incamugongo gihangayikishije abaturarwanda benshi cyari icy’intambara.

Ni muri iryo jambo yatangarije abari muri iyo nama ingamba zafashwe zo gutsirika burundu intambara Inyenzi zishoza kuva muri 1959 kugeza ku yo zashoje tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990.

Yabivuze mu magambo yumvikana: “Turetse ibyemezo twafashe kugirango dutsinde iyi ntambara ku mpembe zombi, ari urwo mu gihugu ari no mu ahanga, hari no kuyitsirika kugirango n’ubuvivure butazigera buyikanga”. Muri ibyo byemezo hari ukongera umubare w’abasilikare, gushakira umunyarwanda wese ufite imbaraga ibyangombwa (ibikoresho bya gisirikare) bahereye ku bo ku mupaka (urubyiruko), gushishikariza abayobozi b’ibanze (abaselire 45.329 na ba nyumbakumi) kubuza umwanzi aho amenera ndetse n’ibyitso by’imbere ngo bitongera guhirahira bitekereza intambara (défense civile).” (p.36)

Uko gutsirika burundu intambara birumvikana ko bitarimo imishyikirano y’amahoro. Nta gushidikanya ko n’amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, Perezida Habyarimana yaba yarayasinye kubera impamvu zijya gusa n’izo dore ko yanayise “ibipapuro” muri mitingi yakoreye mu Ruhengeri ku itariki ya 15 Ugushyingo 1992.

Byanasubiwemo na Kangura (Kangura n°49, Nzeli 1993, p.12). Ubwo ayo masezerano atayemeraga ni uko yari afite ubundi buryo bwo kurangiza ibibazo by’u Rwanda. Umuti yari yarawuvuguse wo Gutsirika burundu intambara.

Gutsirika mu kinyarwanda bivuga gukora ku buryo icyari kiguteye impagarara kitazasubira kubaho. Habyarimana akoresha iryo jambo ngo ku ntambara “inyenzi” zihora zishoza ku Rwanda. Icyo yashatse kuvuga rero ni ugukora ku buryo igitera iyo ntambara kitazongera kubaho. Gutsirika intambara ikururwa n’abatutsi kwari ukuvanaho abayishoza ari bo batutsi. Nta bundi buryo bwarusha ubu kwerura ku mugaragaro jenoside y’abatutsi. Ni cyo gitekerezo yashojerejeho ijambo rifungura iriya Kongere idasanzwe.

Ubumwe bw’abahutu nk’intsinzi

Igitekerezo cy’ubumwe (bw’Abahutu/Nyamwinshi) niryo hame rya mbere Habyarimana yubakiyeho politiki ye. Muri iyi disikuru ijambo ‘ubumwe’ rigaruka inshuro zirenga 12). Uko arivuga ni uko arisobanura usanga ari ihame rishingiye ku kwemera no kwemeza ko umuhutu agira umwanzi umwe, uwo mwanzi akaba umututsi.

Habyarimana na MRND ye yasobanuraga ko “Ubumwe” bushobora kuba “intwaro yo kwamaganira kure ababa bagifite igitekerezo cyo guhungabanya ibyiza bya Revolisiyo yo mu wa 1959.” Abo nabo agasobanura ko ari “inyenzi zahunze aho kugirango zemere demokarasi, abo ni ibyitso by’abatutsi byagiye bihunga igihe inyenzi zabaga ziteye zishaka guhirika Repubulika no gudusubiza mu bucakara”. (p.16)

Mu mugambi wo gitegura jenoside, hakoreshejwe uburyo bwo kubeshya “abahutu” ko bagomba kwica Abatutsi nk’uburyo bwo kwirwanaho. Uwishe uruhinja, umusaza, umusazi n’umurwayi mu bitaro, apfa kuba ari umututsi, akiyumvamo ubutwari.

Habyarimana yagaragaje ko “Ubumwe bw’abahutu” ari ihame rihatse andi muri MRND ivuguruye, kuko yanabishimangiye avuga ngo “ni nayo ntwaro nyakuri yo guhashya umwanzi, ni bwo bwatumye bigaranzura umwanzi, birinda urwa Bayanga n’icuraburindi ry’ingoma y’abari baramenyereye kunyunyuza imitsi ya rubanda”.

Muri iryo jambo Habyarimana yavuze ko ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda (aha yavugaga abahutu) ngo ni bwo bwatumye batsinda iyi ntambara. Ati: “Ese iyo tugwa mu mutego w’umwanzi tugasubiranamo ubu tuba turi he?”

Muri iyi disikuru ye ntiyabiciye hirya kuko yerekanye ko ubumwe yavugaga atari ubw’abanyarwanda bose. Aho ubibona ni aho yavuze yerekana ko atari perezida w’abanyarwanda ahubwo ari perezida w’Abahutu: “Ukuri rero ni ngombwa mu mateka no mu mibereho yacu kugirango tuzashobore kugera ku bumwe. Ubumwe bw’amoko kandi nanone ntibwashoboka ubumwe bw’imbaga nyamwinshi butagezweho. Nk’uko dushima ko nta mututsi wishingikiriza ku karere ni ngombwa ko imbaga nyamwinshi yumva ko igomba kunga ubumwe, kugirango hato ejo itazasubizwa mu icuraburindi ry’ubucakara”.

Yavugiye muri iyo disikuru ko ubu bumwe ari nacyo “abifuza gushinga amashyaka bagombye kuba bafite mu nshingano zabo”.

Ibyo Habyarimana yavugiye muri iyo kongere hari ikinyamakuru kimwe cyonyine cyumvise amacakubiri arimo n’uko Habyarimana yari yahisemo kuba Perezida w’abantu bamwe aho kuba uw’igihugu. Icyo kinyamakuru ni Imbaga.

Abo mu mbaga bagaye Habyarimana Kangura bamushima

Mu ijambo ry’ibanze ry’icyo kinyamakuru (Imbaga No 2-Kamena 1991 p.1) bahaye umutwe “Imbaga nyamwinshi mu mashyaka menshi” Uretse iby’amazina y’ishyaka rishya, ibendera ryaryo n’iby’ikinyamakuru cyaryo, Imbaga cyagarutse ku ijambo Habyarimana yavugiye muri kongre idasanzwe muri Mata 1991 bagaragaza ko “… na ya ntego nziza y’ubumwe bw’amoko y’abanyarwanda uko ari atatu” atari ko yashyizwe imbere muri iryo jambo ry’umukuru w’igihugu. Imbaga kiti: “Ku buryo bugaragara, Perezida Habyarimana yatandukanije abatutsi n’imbaga nyamwinshi. Ubwo bikumvikana ko abahutu aribo yitaga imbaga nyamwinshi (ariko nyamara imbaga nyamwinshi irimo amoko atatu), kandi akaba aribo asaba inkunga”.

Imbaga cyasobanuye icyo abanditsi batekerezaga ku guhindura imvugo kwa MRND n’umuyobozi wayo. “Uko kwibanda ku bwoko bigamije gusibanganya cyangwa kwibagiza ikindi kibazo na cyo gikomeye: ikibazo cy’akarere. Abarwanya Perezida Habyarimana na MRND ye berekana ko yatonesheje akarere k’iwabo kakaryamira utundi turere, cyane cyane mu nyanya y’ubutegetsi, mu mashuri, mu Ngabo z’igihugu no mu mishinga y’amajyambere. Koko ibyo birego ntibyoroshye… Ariko noneho ubwo yivuguruye yagombye kubikosora aho gushimangira imvugo igamije kureshya benshi ariko ishobora guhitana bamwe ngo n’iki bo ni bake.”

Ijambo ry’ibanze rya Kangura yasohotse muri Gicurasi 1991, ryari iryo gushimira Habyarimana kubyo yabwiye Kongre idasanzwe ya MRND. “Nyuma ya Kongere ya mbere idasanzwe ya MRND, twebwe abagize Groupe GISENYI-INFORMATION bakora umwuga w’itangazamakuru, hari amagambo twifuza kubagezaho tubikuye ku mutima. …Ririya jambo ryongeye guha imbaraga imbaga nyamwinshi y’abanyarwanda (la majorité)… Twarabibashimiye, ahasigaye ariko ni ugushyira imvugo mu ngiro”. (Kangura No, 16 Gicurasi 1991 p.2)

Kangura yasabaga ibikorwa bakava mu magambo. Ibyo bikorwa Kangura ntiyari ibitangiye ahubwo yarabikomeje, ibikomeza ifite imigisha ya Perezida w’igihugu na perezida w’ishyaka ryari ku butegetsi. Nkaho basubiragamo amagambo ya Habyarimana. Urupapuro rwa mbere rw’iyo Kangura yabwiye Habyarimana ngo ni uko ni uko, rwari rwanditseho ngo: “Ubumwe bw’abahutu niyo mizero yabo”.

Ibyo bikorwa Kangura yasabaga ko byakorwa ni jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bari bariswe umwanzi bakitwa n’abagome. Ni icyo gikorwa cyari cyarabanje gutandukanya abavandimwe, utabishyigikiye akitwa umugambanyi. Iki cyiciro nicyo cyajemo gushingwa kw’Interahamwe, n;Impuzamugambi zo muri CDR muri gahunda yo guhiga no gutera ubwoba “Abagome n’Abagambanyi”.

Kugirango umenye Imvo n’imvano ya jenoside yabereye mu Rwanda, kurikira Umuhamya w’Amateka (Témoin de l’histoire) ku kuri blog: https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/


[1] Igitabo kirimo “Disikuru zavuzwe na Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana muri Kongere idasanzwe ya MRND, Kigali, kuwa 28 Mata 1991,

2 thoughts on “Habyarimana n’Abagome n’Abagambanyi mu mugambi wa jenoside

  1. Pingback: Imvugo ‘Abagome n’abagambanyi’ mu mugambi wa jenoside #Rwanda #Kwibuka20 #Racism | umuvugizi

  2. Pingback: Menya ba Gashozantambara n’Abatoje #Interahamwe muri Gikongoro #Rwanda #Kwibuka20 | umuvugizi

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