Ba Nyirabayazana b’Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside

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Na: Tom Ndahiro

Jenoside itegurwa hari abantu bari babizi bakabicamo amarenga bigira abahanuzi. Hari ikinyamakuru cyitwaga Ijambo cyayoborwaga na Hangimana Francois Xavier.

Icyo kinyamakuru ni muri bimwe byavuze umugambi wa jenoside, kinabivuga mu magambo adaca iruhande. “Abatutsi ntibashobora gutsemba Abahutu ariko abahutu bashobora gutsemba abatutsi.” Ijambo No 62 Ugushyingo 1993 (p.10)

Ibyo umwanditsi w’ibi yategekerezaga ntiwabimenya. Yanditse asa n’usubiza uwari umubajije ngo hagati y’Umuhutu n’Umututsi uwatsemba undi ni nde! Bishobora kuba n’ikibazo yari yibajije ubwe hanyuma akisubiza. Hangimana yari yaratangiye kwandika yitwa ko arwanya MRND aza gusoza yarabaye Hutu-PAWA kuko no mu gihe yandikaga yari yo.

Amagambo nk’aya yarandikwaga ariko bigafatwa nkaho ari ibisanzwe, kandi ikivugwa ari ugutsembwa kw’abantu.

Kubimenyera, icyo gihe, nta kindi cyabiteye uretse ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yari imaze igihe muri bamwe.

Gutsemba abatutsi byaravugwaga kenshi nk’ibisanzwe. N’uzabikora nawe akavugwa ubuzima bugakomeza. Si ikinyamakuru Ijambo cyabivuze cyonyine.

N’Isibo cyaravuze

Ikinyamakuru ISIBO N° 93 yo ku wa 6 -13 Mata1993 nacyo cyari cyarabivuze kigira kiti: “Kugeza ubu twari tuzi ko CDR yabyawe na MRND kugira ngo ikangaranye abatutsi n’abanyenduga. Yarabikoze irashyekerwa, iraryoherwa, ikenera kwigenga.” (p. 4)

“…HABYARIMANA ati ngendera ku bya kera! Ngo iyo Inyenzi zateraga twicaga ibyitso. Ngo n’ubu zarateye dutsembatsemba ibyitso! Ngo muzarebe ko intambara nihagarara abatutsi bazongera gupfa!” (p.7)

Umunyamakuru MURERAMANZI Néhémie yanditse inkuru igaragaza ko Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana yatsembaga Abatutsi ari ukubahanira ko Inkotanyi zateye, kuko n’umutwe w’iyi nkuru ya nyuma wari: “UWIYISHE NTARIRIRWA, NISHE ABATUTSI KUBERA INTAMBARA”

Icyo Isibo cyitaga gukangaranya, ni ukwica. Nk’ikinyamakuru rimwe na rimwe cyagaragaje kugendera ku matwara ya PARMEHUTU kwica Abatutsi ntibyari ikintu gikanganye cyane!

Na MDR yaravuze

Ishyaka MDR ritaravukamo PAWA, ryigeze gutangaza ko Col. Theoneste Bagosora “Yaba yaratangiye umugambi wo guhindura u Rwanda umuyonga”. Kandi koko niko byari bimeze.

Mu itangazo N° 34 rya MDR Kigali-Ville ryo kuwa 15 Mutarama 1993 bibutsa ko Bagosora atahwemye kugaragaza ko afite umugambi wo kuburizamo amasezerano ya Arusha.

Iryo tangazo riti: “Ubwo yari mu ntumwa z’u Rwanda zagiye ARUSHA mu cyiciro cy’imishyikirano giherutse yasohotse imishyikirano itarangiye, yahise agaruka mu Rwanda, aza akubita agatoki ku kandi, avuga ko aje gutegura umunsi w’imperuka, ariwo yise APOCALYPSE mu gifaransa, akiri iyo ARUSHA.

Iryo tangazo rivuga ibyari byarabaye ku Gisenyi riti: “Ubu bamaze kuhagira imiborogo bafunga imihanda, ari nako bahohotera abantu ari ugushaka intandaro yo kwica ABATUTSI n’abayoboke b’amashyaka atari MRND na CDR.”

“…Bagosora arateganya ko uwo mugambi uzasohozwa n’ikinamico rya kudeta (Coup d’Etat), IKINANI n’umuryango wacyo n’umutungo wacyo bagahungira mu mahanga, BAGOSORA na bagenzi be bakirara mubo bita ibyitso n’ABAGAMBANYI (ni ukuvuga amashyaka atavuga rumwe na MRND) bakabatsembatsemba, bagahagarika inzira ya Demokarasi.”

Reba uko amagambo “Abagome”, “Abagambanyi” n’aho inshinga gutsembatsemba biza

Iyo ngengabitekerezo yagaragaye ryari mu Rwanda?

Joseph Habyarimana Gitera ni umwe mu bantu batangije propaganda yo kwigisha “Abahutu” kwanga “Abatutsi” no kubacamo icyuho cyageze aho kibyara jenoside. Kenshi iyo abantu bavuze amategeko 10 yitiriwe Abahutu, abantu bumva ikinyamakuru Kangura n’umuyobozi wacyo Hassan Ngeze.

Ariko muby’ukuri igitekerezo cyo guhimba ayo mategeko y’urwango yise ay’abahutu cyadukanywe bwa mbere mu Rwanda na J. H. Gitera, muri mitingi ya Aprosoma, muri Astrida, (Huye) ku wa 27 Nzeri 1959.

Ni amategeko afite iriburiro rigaragaza ko rifite inkomoko muri Bibiliya kuko atanga amabwiriza ngo “guhera ubu…”. Gitera agakomeza avuga ko “Umubano w’umututsi n’umuhutu” ari  “umufunzo ku kuguru ni umusundwe mu mubili, ni umusonga mu rubavu”.

Nyuma yo kugereranya umubano w’abantu n’abandi nk’indwara cyangwa udukoko turyana Gitera agatongera ategeka “Umuhutu” ngo “Ntuzongere kwemera cyangwa kwizera Umututsi.”

Gitera yavugaga ibyo azi neza ko hari abanyapolitiki bo muri PARMEHUTU nka Gregory Kayibanda, Dominique Mbonyumutwa, Anasthase Makuza etc… bari bafite abagore b’Abatutsikazi. Muri bo ntawigeze asenda umugore we.  Ntihanagira uwamagana ayo mategeko, ahubwo bashigikira ibiyaha agaciro.

Mu mategeko yasobanuraga uburyo “Abahutu” badakwiye kubana n’abo yanga akanatanga n’impamvu: “Umututsi yuje ubwangwe”; “kamere y’Umututsi ni ubushukanyi” akavuga ko “kubana n’umututsi ni ukwihambiraho urusyo”.

Guhashya cyangwa kwikiza umututsi Gitera yabyise “kwirinda umwanzi cyangwa kwirwanaho” kandi akanabihamya ko byemewe n’amategeko.

Ategeka Abahutu gusyigingiza Abatutsi kugirango bazibe. Uko gusyigingiza bikaba byarasobanuwe mu itegeko rya 4 mu mategeko Kangura yise ay’abahutu, imyaka irenga 31 nyuma y’aya Gitera.

Iryo syigingiza Kangura iriva imuzi muri aya magambo:“Buri Muhutu agomba kumenya ko atagomba kwizera Umututsi mu byo akora byose, kuko ahora agamije gushyira ubwoko bwe imbere. … Niyo mpamvu buri Muhutu wese ukora ibi bikurikira afatwa nk’umugambanyi : Gufatanya n’Abatutsi mu gikorwa runaka ; Gushora amafaranga, yaba ay’umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa aya Leta, mu ruganda rw’Umututsi ; Kuguza cyangwa kuguriza amafaranga Umututsi ; Gukora ibikorwa bifasha abatutsi (kubaha impushya zo gutumiza ibintu mu mahanga , kubaha inguzanyo z’amabanki, kubaha ibibanza byo kubakamo, kubaha amasoko n’ibindi…)

Iri tegeko rikaba ryarakurikiranaga n’irivuga ko bibujijwe kugirira impuhwe Umututsi.

Iyo ahari abantu bahakana ko hari umugambi wa jenoside wabayeho bazi ko ibitekerezo nk’ibi byabayeho, bikandikwa leta ntibihanire ababyanditse, ikimenyetso kindi baba barabuze ni ikihe?

Mu mategeko ya Gitera, irya 9 ribuza “Abahutu” kurarikira abagore b’Abatutsi cyangwa abakobwa babo ngo “ni bibi … nta kimero barusha ababo…” Ibyo Kangura ikabigarura mu itegeko rya 2 “Buri Muhutu agomba kumenya ko abakobwa bacu b’Abahutukazi ari bo kandi babereye kuba ba mutima w’urugo.  Mubona se atari beza! Ntibatavamo se abanyamabanga beza b’indahemuka!”

Buri muntu, ku giti cye, agira uwo yita mwiza n’uwo atabonamo ubwiza. Gufata abantu (bose) ukabita babi cyangwa sibyo. Izi mpaka z’ubwiza bw’abantu runaka n’ububi bw’abandi, ubundi biba mu bantu batekereza kuronda ubwoko.

Kwigisha urwango kwa Gitera, ntibyarangiranye n’ibyo yanditse mu 1959, dore ko muri iryo jambo yatangarijemo ayo mategeko 10 y’urwango yanatangaje ko ngo Abatutsi bashobora gushira mu Rwanda.

Uyu Joseph Habyarimana Gitera niwe wasobanuriye Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana ko umugome ari umututsi. Mu nyandiko yise ‘PAR QUI ET COMMENT RECONCILIER LES TWA, LES HUTU, LES TUTSI DU RWANDA ENTRE EUX!!!’

Inyandiko yise iyo gutanga umusanzu w’icyo yise ‘Protocole de la Réconciliation nationale entre les Rwandais’ (7 Gicurasi 1976) igenewe Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana. Igice kimwe cy’iyo nyandiko cyandukuwe muri Kangura No 6 Ukuboza 1990 (p.12-15). Iyi nimero ya Kangura akaba ari nayo yasohoye amategeko 10 y’abahutu.

Gitera yandikiye Perezida Habyarimana ngo ari igisubizo ku kibazo yari yaramubajije ngo: “Abahutu n’Abatutsi bapfa iki?” Gitera agasubiza ko bapfa ubutegetsi n’ububi bw’abatutsi.

Gitera avuga ko Abatutsi ari “abagome”bakaba n’abicanyi akanasobanura n’uburyo bakwiye kuba ku mugozi.

Gitera kandi agasobanura ko Abahutu ari abagomoke, abemera “Repubulika” bakwiye  kuba ku ngoma nkuko bayiriho. Akavuga ko Habyarimana uri “ku ngoma” akaba Nyamukurura Mukuru  w’ingoma ugomba gukurura yishyira. Akamumbwira ngo “Senya  amarumbu..Wange  amadumbu”

Ayo magambo yose arayasobanura, byumvikana ko yashakaga kumuhakwahoariko anamwibutsa urwango bashingiyeho mu 1959.

Itegeko rya 9 muri  ya mategeko ya Kangura rigira riti : “Aho Abahutu bava bakagera bagomba kuba bamwe, bagatahiriza umugozi umwe, bagahora bibaza kuri ejo hazaza ha bene wabo b’Abahutu. Abahutu baba mu Rwanda no hanze bagomba guhora bashakisha inshuti bahereye ku bavandimwe babo bo mu bwoko bwa “Bantous”, mu rwego rwo guteza imbere Umuhutu. Bagomba guhora baburizamo umugambi w’Abatutsi. Abahutu bagomba kudatezuka no kuba maso mu kurwanya umwanzi umwe ariwe Mututsi.”

Ibyo Juvenal Habyarimana yavugiye muri kongre ya MRND, byari byaranditwe na KANGURA mu amezi ane mbere, byaravuzwe kandi na Gitera mu guhera mu 1959.

Kuba ingabo z’igihugu zaranditse ko umwanzi wa mbere ari umututsi, bari bafite aho byari byaranditswe kandi byarigishijwe nkuko bizagaragara mu mateka tubagezaho.

U Rwanda n’umunyarwanda byari byaravuye mu mvugo y’abateguye jenoside. No kubona Gitera asingizwa na Kangura, akaririmbwa cyane mu ndirimbo ya Simon Bikindi, ni ikimenyetso ko yari umuntu wahabwaga agaciro mu ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside.

Mu itegeko rya gatandatu mu ya Kangura navuze, havugwaga ibyo gusyigingiza Abatutsi mu burezi. “Urwego rw’uburezi (abanyeshuri bato, abo mu mashuri yisumbuye n’amakuru, abarimu) rugomba kwiganzamo Abahutu.” Ibi ntibyari igitekerezo gishya icyo kinyamakuru cyifuzaga ko gishyirwa mu bikorwa. Byari ibisanzwe.

Col. Aloys Nsekalije ni mu bantu bigeze kuyobora minisiteri y’uburezi igihe kinini. Mu mwaka w’1988, yasobanuye impamvu bagomba kwemeza politiki y’ivangura bitaga iringaniza. Mu kiganiro yagiranye n’ikinyamakuru Le Coopérateur-Umunyamuryango, yagize ati : “Gupfurapfurika amagambo ntabwo aribyo. Tuvuge nka Komini Kigoma iramutse igize abana b’Abatwa 30 b’abahanga, bose bagatsinda, Minisiteri y’Uburezi ibigenewe ikamanika lisiti kuri Komini. Ku rundi ruhande, tuvuge ngo muri Komini Nyamabuye hakaba listi y’Abatutsi gusa, minisiteri ikamanika iyo listi…Ahandi naho hagatsinda abanyeshuri b’abahutu gusa. Iyo listi y’abatutsi gusa mwumva yaharara? Tuvuge kigabo. Iyo listi bayitwika, n’amashuri bagiye kwigamo bakayatwika. …”[1]

Uyu yari minisitiri w’uburezi, yigisha abantu ko ubwoko bugenga ubwenge. Ari minisitiri woshya abantu gutwika amashuri arimo abana b’Abatutsi cyangwa Abatwa batsinze bakoresheje ubwonko atari ubwoko bwabahesheje amanota.

Yabivugaga yishimye, yiyemera ko ari ijambo rya kigabo kandi ari ukudindiza abantu bamwe, n’igihugu.

Izi nyandiko ku buhamya bw’amateka ni izigamije kwerekana ukuri kw’ibyabaye no gufasha abatazi ibyabaye kubera ko batari bavuka cyangwa bari bato cyane jenoside itegurwa. Abanyarwanda bato nibo bafite uruhare rw’ibanze mu gukumira icyo cyaha, no kubageza ku ntego ya “NTIBIKABE” cyangwa “NEVER AGAIN”.

Kugirango umenye Imvo n’imvano ya jenoside yabereye mu Rwanda, kurikira Umuhamya w’Amateka (Témoin de l’histoire) ku kuri blog: https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/


[1] Antoine Mugesera, Imibereho y’abatutsi muri Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri (1959-1990)- Les Edition Rwandaise, Kigali(2004) p.315

One thought on “Ba Nyirabayazana b’Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside

  1. Pingback: Menya ba Gashozantambara n’Abatoje #Interahamwe muri Gikongoro #Rwanda #Kwibuka20 | umuvugizi

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