Jenoside n’Ingoma y’Abajenosideri mu Marembera (1)

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Na: Tom Ndahiro

Guverinoma y’abajenosideri yatangiye kwumva ko gutsindwa byabaye muri Gicurasi 1994. Nyuma y’inkotanyi gufata imijyi ya Kayonza, Kabarondo, Kibungo, umupaka uhuza u Rwanda na Tanzania, Rwamagana, Kabuga, ikigo cya gisirikare cya Gako na Nyamata ibimenyetso bibaganisha mu marembera byarabatashye.

Ku itariki ya 19 Gicurasi, ikigo cya gisirikare n’ikibuga cy’indege bya Kanombe byari bimaze kubura ubuhumekero kuko Inkotanyi zari zararangije kuhagota hose zatangiye gutsimbura ingabo za Sindikubwabo.

Ndetse urebye kuri 20 na 21 Gicurasi, Inkotanyi zari zarahinjiye ariko batarabasha kuhagenzura hose n’ubwo abasirikare ba leta bari batangiye gufata utwangushye bahungira i Nyarugenge.

Benshi bahungaga banyuze Busanza, abandi bamanukira iya Samuduha bagana ku Kicukiro na Gatenga na Gikondo.

Mu ijoro ryo ku wa 21 rigana 22 Gicurasi abasirikare b’Inkotanyi bafashe ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe n’ikibuga cy’indege. Bwakeye inkuru yakwiriye ku isi.

Ibibaya bya Kajeke na Byimana (Hagati ya Niboye na Kagarama) byari byuzuye abasirikare n’Interahamwe bahunga ariko bari banabanje gukozanyaho ubwabo.

Ku manywa yo ku itariki ya 22, radiyo mpuzamahanga y’abafaransa (RFI), mu kiganiro cyayo “Afrique Midi” yahitishije ibyo umunyamakuru wabo Dominique de Courcelles yari yagiranye na Jenerali Augustin Bizimungu wari umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za Sindikubwabo.

Icyo kiganiro cyibanze gusa ku gutsimburwa kwazo i Kanombe cyane cyane ku kibuga cy’indege.

Muri icyo kiganiro ikimwaro cyavugishije Bizimungu amangambure cyangwa aya nyakurekwa ko batatsinzwe ahubwo ko ikibuga bagisigiye ingabo za Loni (MINUAR).

Umunyamakuru yamubwira ko ikibuga cy’indege cyafashwe n’Inkotanyi Gen. Bizimungu akijijisha avuga ko atangazwa n’uburyo izo ngabo za Loni zagitanze.

Muri icyo kiganiro wumvamo neza gutsindwa. Bizimungu yemeye ko bari basigaye barwana byo kwirwanaho gusa (defensive) kandi ko hari hashize iminsi ine cyangwa itanu barwana kuri icyo kigo n’ikibuga bikananirana.

Bishe abarwayi n’inkomere

Kimwe mu bintu bibabaje kandi bigaragaza ubugome, ni ukuba FAR barishe abarwayi babo bari mu bitaro by’i Kanombe. Ibyo byemejwe n’abasirikare babo babiri babashije gufatwa n’Inkotanyi.

Abo bafashwe ni amahirwe bagize bahitamo kujya mu maboko y’Inkotanyi akaba ari nabo bavuze uko byagenze.

Harya ubundi ingabo zateguye, zigashyigikira jenoside ikibi zitakora ni iki?

Bavuze ko abayobozi b’ikigo batanze itegeko ko umurwayi cyangwa inkomere udashobora kwisindagiza cyangwa uwabuze umwanya mu modoka nke batorokanye yicwa. Abatararashwe barabasogose na bya byuma biba ku mbunda.

Kugera mu bitaro bya Kanombe icyo gihe byari biteye ikibazo. Wibaza ibitaro byabaye nk’ibagiro ry’abantu?

Ibyo nahabonye nyuma y’iminsi ibiri hafashwe, sinabasha kubyandika. Imvange z’abasirikare n’abasiviri bishwe bazira ngo ntibazabane n’Inkotanyi.

Ibyo kwica abarwayi cyangwa inkomere ntibyari bishya kuri FAR cyangwa Interahamwe  kuko no mu bitaro bya CHK bari barabikoze aho bategekaga abasirikare babo bakomerekeye ku rugamba kwica Abatutsi bari baharwariye.

Izo nkomere, zigendera ku tugare cyangwa n’izibasha kwigenza, bazitegekega kwica abo barwayi ngo ari mu rwego rwo kwihorera no kwishimisha.

Nkuko kandi bigaragara mu itangazo rya ICRC, ku itariki ya 14 Mata Interahamwe zambuye inkomere 6 Croix Rouge Rwanda barazica.

Bateye inkunga Inkotanyi

Kuri 24 Gicurasi, umugaba mukuru w’Inkotanyi, Paul Kagame, yatangaje ko gufatwa kw’ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe yari intambwe ikomeye cyane ku rugamba rwo kubohora abanyarwanda.

N’ubwo intambara yose igira abayigwamo, gufatwa kw’ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe byabaye imbarutso ikomeye iganisha ku gutsindwa kwa FAR. Icya mbere ni umwiryane byateye hagati y’abasirikare n’Interahamwe.

Abasirikare bo babonaga aho urugamba rugana bahitamo gukuramo akabo karenge. Interahamwe ntizibyumve uburyo ngo abasirikare bitwa “INZIRABWOBA” bashobora guhunga “INYENZI” kandi bafite intwaro zihagije.

Iyo myumvire yatumye Interahamwe zitegera abasirikare mu mayira zirabarasa ngo babaye imbwa. Birumvikana ko n’abaraswaga birwanyeho.

Mu kabande kari munsi y’aho bita mu Gashyushya no hepfo yo mu Rubirizi Inkotanyi zahatoye imbunda nyinshi cyane n’amasasu kubera iyo nyambara hagati y’abasirikare ba FAR n’Interahamwe zabo.

Uretse ibyo ibibunda binini n’imizinga Inkotanyi zasanze mu kigo cy’ i Kanombe ubwinshi bwa bimwe muri ibyo bwarutaga ibyo zari zifite. Urugero ni ukubona ibibunda bishya bigihambiriye mu mashashi 13 bya 37mm AAC biri ahantu hamwe. N’ibindi n’ibindi kandi ba nyirabyo bataka ko batsinzwe kubera kubura intwaro n’amasasu.

Umubare w’ibi bibunda bihanura indege bikanakoreshwa mu kurasa mu bantu n’amazu, byari inshuro zirenga ebyiri z’ibyo Inkotanyi zagiraga. Hari n’amakarito y’ibisimbura ibirashisha ibyo bibunda (spare barrels) 38.

Inkotanyi zanahasanze n’imizinga mishya 4 ya 105 mm itaragirwaga n’Inkotanyi n’amakarito 82 yuzuye ibibombe byayo. Ubu bwoko bw’imizinga Inkotanyi zari zarabutaziriye “DIMBA HASI” kubera imbaraga zabyo.

Abasirikare b’Inkotanyi bambwiye ko iyo mizinga ya 105mm yarashishwaga n’abafaransa ubwabo guhera muri 1992. Ngo hari n’aba FAR bake bari barabyigishijwe.

Uretse n’izi “DIMBA HASI” intwaro nyinshi u Rwanda rwari rufite rwari rwaraziguze binyujijwe mu mpano y’abafaransa (nko muri Banki ya leta yitwa Crédit Lyonnais) cyangwa se zizanywe n’abafaransa ubwabo.

Urugero rw’izo ntwaro zazanywe n’Abafaransa ni izagemuwe ku itariki ya 8 Mata 1994. Nkuko byatangajwe n’umusirikare w’umubiligi, Col. Luc Marshal, uwo munsi, jenoside yaraye itangiye, haje indege y’abafaransa yuzuye intwaro, bazipakururira ku kibuga cy’indege hanyuma, mu minota itari myinshi FAR izipakira amakamyo izijyana i Kanombe mu kigo cya gisirikare.

Iby’izo ntwaro abafaransa bagemuriye abateguye bakanashyira mu bikorwa jenoside ni birebire tuzaba tubigarukaho.

N’izo zagemuriwe FAR jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yatangiye zazaga zisanga izindi nyinshi zazanywe muri Gashyantare 1993

Ugitengo mu bajenosideri n’inshuti zabo

Ku wa 16 Gicurasi nibwo Inkotanyi zafashe Nyamata. Birumvikana ko zari zabanje i Gako. Mu kiganiro Jenerali Bizimungu yagiranye na RFI, yavuze ko n’ Ubugesera bari bahisemo kubuvamo ku bushake. Yirinze kwivamo ngo avuge ko bokejwe bagashya bagahunga.

Uwo munsi, w’uwa 16 Gicurasi kandi umunyamakuru ukorera Interahamwe muri Radiyo Rwanda  witwa Etienne KAREKEZI yagiranye ikiganiro n’umunyapolitiki wa Hutu-Power, Francois NZABAHIMANA wari mu Bubiligi aho yari yaragiye mu butumwa akagumishwayo no kuvugira abajenosideri.

Icyatumye icyo kiganiro kiba muri ibyo bihe, ucyumva mu bibazo Karekezi yabazaga. Yabanje kubaza Nzabahimana ngo icyo bakora mu Butrayi “gifatika” ngo bumvikanishe ibibazo u Rwanda n’“abanyarwanda” bafite n’imiterere n’intandaro.

Etienne Karekezi ati: “Nsanga bamwe mu banyamahanga batumva imiterere y’icyo kibazo, bakihutira kumva gusa ibyo FPR ibabwira cyangwa bakabifata uko babishaka. Mukora iki ngo mutange ibyo bisobanuro?”

Karekezi yokeje igitutu Nzabahimana amwumvisha ko ngo ikibazo cy’u Rwanda gisobanuwe neza “byakoroha kugikemura.” Yasobanuriye Nzabahimana ko aho ikibazo kiri ari uko ngo abanyamahanga bazaga mu Rwanda gusura abavanywe mu byabo n’impunzi, “bita gusa ku bari mu mujyi cyane cyane abari muri za hoteli nka Mille Collines, Meridien n’ahandi heza nk’aho, kandi abahari ntibanyagirwa ndetse banagaburirwa neza.”

Nyuma y’ako gashungo n’ubushinyaguzi bwo kubona ko abari bihishe muri ayo mahoteli bari mu mudendezo, Karekezi yabajije Nzabahimana ngo: “Mwakora iki kugira ngo uburenganzira bw’abo bantu bwubahirizwe ku buryo bungana n’ubwari muri za Hoteli.”

Etienne Karekezi yashoje aha amakuru Nzabahimana yo gushyigikira abakoraga jenoside ati: “Muri iki gihe umutekano uragenda urushaho kuba mwiza, cyane cyane mu bice bigenzurwa n’ingabo z’u Rwanda na guverinoma.”

Umuntu wese wari uzi ibyaberaga mu Rwanda atari umujenosideri, ntabwo yavuga ko ku ruhande rwa leta hari umutekano azi imbaga y’abantu yari imaze gutikizwa, hakiri n’abandi babagaho batazi ko bari buramuke. Kuri Etienne Karekezi n’abajenosideri batekereza nka we icyo bitaga umutekano ni ukurimbuka kw’Abatutsi.

Uwo Etienne Karekezi si undi ni uwo benshi bazi ukorera Radiyo Ijwi rya Amerika (VOA). Kimwe mubisubizo Nzabahimana yamushubije ni ngo hari abanyamahanga bari biteguye kuza mu Rwanda kwirebera uko bimeze.

Kuri Karekezi abajenosideri bari inzirakarengane zikeneye kivurira na kivugira. Ni ibyo yakomeje kuvuga na n’ubu. Ibyo Etienne Karekezi yavugaga yari abihuje cyangwa yasubiragamo Inama yagiwe na Jean Kambanda wari Minisitiri w’Intebe Umunsi ahura n’abasenyeri ba za Kiliziya n’amatorero mu Rwanda.

Karekezi nka Kambanda

Muri iyo nama yabereye i Gitarama kuwa 16 Gicurasi, Kambanda yabwiye abo banyamadini kumenya ko ngo “Abatutsi bari bafite umugambi wo gutsemba Abahutu”, ngo bakanatsemba “n’abantu b’ibyitso”.

Kambanda yasabye abo basenyeri kwakira leta imfashanyo, no “gusobanura by’ukuri iby’iyintambara”. Ukuri kwe kurumvikana. Yarababwiye ngo “Mwandike, mukore ingendo mubonane n’izindi Kiliziya mufitanye imibano n’ibindi bigo mukorana”. Bamwe muri bo nka ba Myr. Jonathan Ruhumuriza na Ncamihigo bagiye Nairobi muri iyo misiyo.

Kambanda yababwiye ko iby’intambara bikomeye kuko bagenda babura amayira ngo basa n’umuntu ubura umwuka. Yabyise “asphyxie totale”.

Yanababwiye ko batarwana na FPR-Inkotanyi gusa ngo ahubwo barwana na Uganda na Belgium. Yatakiye abasenyeri ababwira ko ngo iminsi 90 bari bihaye yo gutabara yarigiye kubashiriraho ntagikozwe. Ibuka ko bari biyise “Guverinoma y’abatabazi”

Abanyaburayi b’inshuti z’abicanyi

Icyo kiganiro cya Karekezi na Nzabahimana kiba hari Abanyaburayi babiri, Umubiligi n’Umuholandi bali baje mu Rwanda bagenzwa ahanini no kugira inama abajenosideri ngo barebe uburyo bakwiyerekana neza nyuma yo kwivuruguta mu maraso y’abatutsi barenga miliyoni bari bamaze kwica.

Urugendo rw’abo banyaburayi Frans Van Hoof w’Umuholandi na Ivan Godfroid w’Umubiligi mu Rwanda rwabaye hagati ya 15 Gicurasi -8 Kamena 1994. Bakavuga ko baje ari intumwa z’ishyirahamwe EUROSTEP. Soma hano kumenya byinshi bakoze na nyuma ya jenoside.

Frans Van Hoof na Ivan Godfroid baje mu Rwanda baratangije umushinga TRAITS D’UNION RWANDA (TUR) ugaragara ko waharaniraga kuvugira abakoze jenoside mu Rwanda. Ngo uwo mushinga wagombaga kuba uwo gukora dialogue (nk’ivugwa na FDLR)

Uwo  ushinga wahurirwagamo na za ONG Mbiligi COOPIBO, Vredeseilanden na  SOS-FAIM. Uwo mushinga wa TUR wanabarizwaga aho SOS-FAIM yakoreraga.  Iyo TUR yari ifite ikinyamakuru cyakoze guhera icyo gihe kugeza ubwo inkambi za Kivu zombie zasenyukaga.

Icyo kinyamakuru cyakozwemo n’Abanyaburayi n’Abanyarwanda bahuzwaga no kurengera guverinoma y’abajenosideri n’ishyirahamwe RDR ryayisimbuye. N’uwo Frans Van Hoof, Nkuliyingoma Jean Baptiste, Gaspar Karemera, n’abandi bari muri uwo murongo bandikiraga icyo kinyamakuru.

Mu gihe ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe n’ikibuga byari biri mu mazi abira, za ONG mbiligi na bamwe mu banyarwanda cyane abo muri Hutu-Pawa, bahuriye mu bubiligi kwiga uwavugira abajenosideri.

Iyo nama yabereye ahitwa FROIDMONT kuwa 20-21 Gicurasi. Bamwe mubanyaburayi bayitabiriye ni Dominique Lessaffre na Bernard Taillefer (France), Mayer Graaf (Switzerland) na Hugues Dupriez (Belgium).

Aya matsinda yigaga uburyo bagoboka abajenosideri yarakomeje na nyuma y’aho batsindiwe.

Abazi Kigali igifite ibikomere by’intambara, bakwibuka ko nta giti cy’iryo shyamba rya ETO-Kicukiro cyagiraga amashami agaragara.

Kuwa 23-24 Gicurasi Inkotanyi zategeye mu nzira abasirikare bahunze i Kanombe rwambikanira mu ishyamba rya ETO ndetse n’abari banyuze mu mpinga ya Nyanza ya Kagarama. Aha ni ho FAR yamburiwe intwaro nyinshi kurusha izo basize mu kigo cya Kanombe.

Icyo batari bafite ni imizinga n’imbunda nini cyane batabashaga kwikorera ari nabyo bari basize i Kanombe mu kigo. Uko aho hose hafatwaga ni nako Radio muhabura yakomezaga kuhamagarira abasirikare ba FAR kwitandukanya n’iyo leta ngome.

Ibyo bakoze byatangiye kwitwa izina ryabyo

Ku wa 25 Gicurasi, Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu yafashe umwanzuro ko hari ibikorwa bya jenoside byabaye mu Rwanda ari nabwo bemezaga ko René Dégni-Ségui aba Special Rapporteur  akaza mu Rwanda gukorera uwo muryango iperereza.

Bwarakeye kuri 26 Gicurasi Inkotanyi zisatira umujyi wa Ruhango bawugota wose ugenzurwa neza kuwa 28 Gicurasi bagana Gitarama. Uwo munsi kandi Inkotanyi zakiriye ku Rusumo intumwa z’umuryango OAU/OUA bari baje kwirebera uko bimeze. Imirambo yari yarafatiwe mu mihaga ya Rusumo yari ihagije kubereka ubugome bwa leta yagombaga kujya mu nama y’abakuru ba OAU.

Uko kwumva ko gutsindwa barakoze jenoside, ni nabyo byatumye leta ya Sindikubwabo yemera gutanga abari barahungiye muri Hoteli ya Mille Colline. MINUAR yabaguranye n’abari kuri stade Amahoro ya Remera bashakaga kujya ku ruhande rwa leta.

Abari bavuye muri Mille Colline bakiriwe i Kabuga ku wa 27 na 28 Gicurasi.  Kuwa 30 Gicurasi Umujyi wa Nyanza wari wagezwemo. Uwo munsi Jean Kambanda yatumije inama aho bakoreraga i Murambi wa Gitarama ngo bige uko bazabigenza n’aho bazajya umunsi aho bari hafashwe.

Ntibyari kure cyane Inkotanyi zari zihegereye. I Mbuye na Shyogwe iz’amarere zaraharebaga.

Biracyaza…

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