Ubufatanye bwa FPR n’andi mashyaka mu kubaka u Rwanda si ubwa 2017

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Ubu hari imitwe ya politiki umunani yashyigikiye umukandida Perezida Kagame Paul, wa FPR-Inkotanyi mu matora ya Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda mu mwaka w’2017. Ubwo bufatanye si ubwa mbere bubaye kuko nyuma y’aho FPR itsindiye guverinoma y’abajenosideri ku wa 4 Nyakanga 1994, yari yarahisemo gukorana n’indi mitwe ya Politiki harimo n’iyo bakorana ubu.

Ibi Perezida Kagame yarabishimangiye mu gihe cyo kwiyamamaza mu karere ka Karongi ku itariki ya 27 Nyakanga 2017 ndetse n’ahandi yiyamaje. Ubwo bufatanye bwagize uruhare rukomeye mu kwubaka u Rwanda nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Ubwo bumwe bw’amashyaka kandi bufite amateka benshi batazi cyangwa n’abayazi batibuka.

Mu gihe cyo kwiyamamaza ku wa 14 Nyakanga 2017, Perezida Kagame yabwiye abaturage b’Akarere ka Nyanza igihatse intekerezo ye ya politiki mu bufatanye:  “Twatsinze ingamba nyinshi. Iyo dutsinze ntitubyigamba, duharanira uburenganzira bwa bose n’abatumva kimwe natwe.” Kuko intego ari ugukomeza “kugira u Rwanda rwiza kurushaho.”

Hari ibyagaragaye imyaka irenga 23, ariko intekerezo na politiki z’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda kimwe n’ubufatanye n’uwo ari we wese ukunda kandi ushaka kwubaka u Rwanda, niryo remezo rya FPR- Inkotanyi kuva mu 1987. Ijambo “FRONT” nicyo rivuga. Ni “tujyane” mu nzira nziza twemeranyije.

Nyuma yo Gutsinda urugamba

Ku wa 19 Nyakanga 1994, hagiyeho guverinoma ya mbere y’u Rwanda nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Iyo guverinoma y’ubumwe, yari igizwe n’imitwe ya politiki ya FPR, MDR, PDC, PL na PSD. Iyi mitwe ya politiki FPR yashyize mu butegetsi, yari mucyitwa Forces Démocratique de Changement (FDC).

Iyo guverinoma ikaba yaragiyeho hakurikijwe Itangazo rya FPR-INKOTANYI ryo ku wa 17 Nyakanga 1994 rishyiraho inzego z’ubutegetsi rikanavanamo amashyaka ya politiki yateguye akanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside. Ayo mashyaka yasheshwe ni ayiyitaga Ihuriro ry’Abashimangira Demokarasi/Alliance pour le Renforcement de la Démocratie (ARD). Ayo mashyaka akaba ari MRND, CDR, PDR, PECO, PADER n’utundi dushyaka duto.

Ku wa 24 Ugushyingo 1994 hasinywe amasezerano hagati y’imitwe ya politiki FPR, MDR, PDC, PDI, PL, PSD, PSR na UDPR, yerekeye ishyirwaho ry’inzego z’Igihugu, akanemeza Itangazo rya FPR ryo ku wa 17 Nyakanga 1994. Ni igikorwa cyakozwe mu rwego rwo “gushimangira igikorwa cyo kubohoza Abanyarwanda cyatangiwe n’ingufu z’abana b’u Rwanda, cyane cyane hashyirwa mu bikorwa amahame y’ubwiyunge, kwihanganirana no gufashanya kw’Abanyarwanda kandi hafatwa ingamba zo kubaka u Rwanda ari mu by’ubukungu, mu by’imibereho myiza no guteza imbere umuco wa Demokarasi.”

Ayo masezerano yanateganyije uko imyanya yo mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Inzibacyuho igomba gusaranganywa hanemezwa ko Ingabo z’Igihugu zihagararirwa mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko. Imitwe ya politiki FPR-Inkotanyi, MDR, PL na PSD buri umwe wahawe imyanya (13), Ingabo z’igihugu (6), PDC (6), PDI (2), PSR (2) na UDPR (2).

Amasezerano y’Amahoro ya Arusha, ashyiraho Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho yaguye (Art. 62) nkuko yasinywe ku wa 9 Mutarama 1993, yari yarageneye imitwe ya politiki imyanya y’abadepite ku buryo bukurikira:

Imitwe ya politiki MRND, FPR, MDR, PSD na PL yagenewe imyanya (11), ishyaka rya PDC rihabwa (4) andi mashyaka asigaye yemewe n’amategeko agenerwa umwanya umwe umwe. Nta gitangaza cyari kubaho iyo FPR yari gufata imyanya ya ARD andi mashyaka agasigarana ayo yagenewe Arusha. Ariko, ntibyari mu ntekerezo yayo ya politiki.

Politiki ya MRND yatsindiwe Arusha

FPR-Inkotanyi ntiyatsindaga Leta ya Habyarimana ku rugamba gusa, no muri politiki na diplomasi ni uko. Imishyikirano yarabaga ariko MRND ikaza ikurikira kuko hari ibyayisigaga kubera kutayishaka kuko gahunda ya ARD yari Jenoside, cyangwa se ubuswa cyangwa byombi.

Nshingiye ku nyandiko mfite ariko zitarajya ahagaragara, MRND yemeye imishyikirano itabishaka. Hari inama ya Komite y’Igihugu ya MRND yateraniye i Kigali ku wa 2 Kanama 1992. Mu ngingo umunani zari kuri gahunda y’ibyigwa, iya mbere yari “Imishyikirano leta y’u Rwanda igirana n’Inkotanyi.”

Ku murongo w’ibyigwa bagaragaje ko batishimiye kuba mu masezerano yo guhagarika imirwano haremejwemo ibyo imishikirano izibandaho.

MRND yatangajwe cyane n’ukuntu Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga n’Ubutwererane, Bwana Ngurinzira Bonifasi, yashyize umukono kuri ibyo bintu kandi yari yatumwe gusa kujya impaka ku byerekeye kureba uko imirwano yahagarara.” Bati… “Nyamara mu masezerano, usanga leta y’u Rwanda yarabyemeye ahubwo bizashyirwa mu bikorwa akaba aribyo bizagibwaho impaka. Ibyo sibyo leta y’u Rwanda yari yaratumye Minisitiri Ngurinzira warengereye.”

Ikindi cyatangaje MRND, ngo ni ukuntu muri disikuru yo gutangiza imishyikirano, ngo Nyakwigendera Ngulinzira ngo “yatangaje ibyo leta y’u Rwanda yemereye Inkotanyi nta mpaka zigiwe, bituma noneho Inkotanyi ziyumvamo ingufu kurushaho, zirushaho gusaba byinshi.” Ukagirango imbaraga FPR yari ifite icyo gihe na n’ubu byatewe n’iyo mbwirwaruhame!

Muri iyo nama y’abayobozi ba MRND habaye kwibaza niba bakwiye gukomeza intambara cyangwa kuyoboka inzira y’amahoro. Iyo nama y’abayobozi bakuru ba MRND banatangira kwibaza ngo harya Inkotanyi ni iki? Inkotanyi ni bantu ki? Ni Abanyarwanda cyangwa harimo 50% by’Abagande? Inkotanyi zihagarariye nde? etc…

Iyi nama yize uburyo ingabo zabo zakwongera morali bakarwana ku buryo hanabaye imishyikirano baba aribo bafite ijambo ryumvikana. Kubera ubuswa no kwibeshya bikabije muri politiki, aho gutegura gushyikirana gusa, bateganyaga guhindura imishyikirano ya Arusha ikaba iyo kwotsa igitutu igihugu cya Uganda bakoresheje ibihugu by’inshuti.

Imwe mu nyandiko z’uwari muri iyo nama hari aho yandika muri notes ze Ngo “il faut négocier en position de force; il faut que nos soldats aient une morale… imishyikirano faire pression sur l’Uganda par pays amis…”

Ni ibyifuzo gusa bagize bitigeze bigira icyo bigeraho uretse gutegura Jenoside. Iyo nama yabaye amasezerano yo guhagarika imirwano yarasinywe, icyatangiwe kuganirwa ari ingingo ya mbere muzemejwe, “Igihugu kigendera ku mategeko” yasinywe ku wa 18 Kanama 1993.

Iyo nama nkuru ya MRND yateguraga kuburana urw’abana. Ngo ntiyumvaga impamvu habayeho amasezerano yo gushinga mu Rwanda igihugu kigendera ku mategeko ngo kandi ari “igihugu cyigenga guhera tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962” kikemerwa na “ONU na OUA kandi kigendera kw’itegeko Nshinga.”

Muri iyo nyandiko bagaragaje ishavu ku kuba iyo ngingo yaremewe kuba mubigize amasezerano. Abayobozi ba MRND bati: “N’iyo amategeko agenga u Rwanda yaba adakurikizwa ijana ku ijana, ntibyabuza u Rwanda kuba igihugu kigendera ku mategeko. Ahubwo ibyo byakosorwa. Kuvuga rero ko Inkotanyi zizaza gushinga mu Rwanda Leta igendera ku mategeko nta shingiro bifite kuko iyo Leta iriho.” Byabaye aka wa mugani ngo uvuga ibigoramye umuhoro ukarakara.

Ku bijyanye na Demokarasi n’amashyaka menshi n’iby’uburenganzira bwa muntu nabyo byarabagoye kwemera ko ntacyo badakora gitunganye barijujuta. Ngo kuba haravuguruwe Itekegonshinga ryemera amashyaka menshi “…Demokarasi ishingiye ku mashyaka menshi Inkotanyi zivuga itari iyo ni iyihe?”

Ku by’uburenganzira bwa muntu MRND yavuze ko ngo yemera ko mu Rwanda bwubahirizwa ngo ariko “u Rwanda si paradizo, ko ruzakomeza gukosora ibikosamye.” Muri ibyo bita amakosa harimo kwica abantu bazira icyo baricyo, ivangurabwoko, guca abantu mu gihugu cyabo no kubambura ubumuntu, n’ibindi byinshi.

Imyumvire mibi ntishobora gutuma umuntu atekereza. Urugero ni ingingo bagombaga kwiga ijyanye n’imishyikirano yateganyaga “Gushyiraho umutwe w’Ingabo uzaba ugizwe n’Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi.” Bagaye Minisitiri Ngulinzira wasinye ayo masezerano muri aya magambo: “Iyo urebye neza abaduteye, usanga ari ingabo za NRA, zirimo Abanyarwanda bake bakomoka ku mpunzi. Mu ngabo haza nde hagasigara nde? Iyo kandi Inkotanyi zivuga Ingabo za Guverinoma y’u Rwanda”, zibivuga ku bushake ari ugusesereza, ziyibagiza ko ari “Ingabo z’Igihugu.” Gusinya amasezerano arimo amagambo nk’ayo akaba atari byiza.”

Ingabo ziba iz’Igihugu iyo zifite, kandi zigakomera ku nshingano yo kwita ku mutekano w’abaturage bose nta vangura. Ingabo zateguraga jenoside, zaba zite iz’Igihugu? Ibyo byaje kugaragara ubwo ubuyobozi bukuru bw’Ingabo za guverinoma ya Habyarimana, ku itariki ya 21 Nzeri 1992 zashyiraga ahagaragara amahame y’urwango basobanura umwanzi w’u Rwanda uwo ariwe.

Kuba barabyandikiye Ingabo zabo zose, mu gisirikare biba ari inyigisho remezo (doctrine) bikaba n’amabwiriza ahoraho (Permanent Order). Igihe ubwiye abasirikare ko Abatutsi bose, aho bava bakagera ku Isi ari abanzi b’Igihugu, ukanongeraho n’Abahutu batishimiye ubutegetsi, byari amabwiriza yo kubica igihe cyose bashakiye. Kandi ni nabyo byakozwe muri Jenoside.

Uko kwibeshya ntibyahagarariye kuby’Ingabo gusa. No mubyo “Gusangira ubutegetsi, Inkotanyi zikinjira muri Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho ihuriwemo n’amashyaka menshi” basubiye ku gitekerezo cyo kwibona ko ari bo banyarwanda bagerera abandi.

MRND isanga impunzi zigomba kubanza zigatahuka, zikiremamo ishyaka rya politiki, zigahatanira ubutegetsi kimwe n’andi mashyaka…ziciye mu matora aho gukoresha intwaro.” Kuri iyi ngingo MRND ikavuga ko ngo kubera iyo mpamvu “FPR igomba kubanza kwemera ko leta y’u Rwanda ihagarariye abaturage, kandi ko yemewe n’amahanga.” Kandi ngo “FPR igomba gusobanura neza icyo izaba aricyo” imishyikirano irangiye ngo “ntizaze yigira Leta mu gihugu cyigenga.”

Ku itariki 11 Nzeri 1992, ubunyamabanga bwa MRND bwakwije itangazo bise “Ubutumwa bugenewe Abarwanashyaka ba MRND” buvuga ku mishyikirano yaberaga Arusha. Bati “Twiyemeje ko inzibacyuho izamara amezi 12 bityo amatora akaba yarangiye mu kwa 4, 1993.”

Igika cya nyuma cy’iryo tangazo kiti: “Abanyarwanda bose, ariko cyane cyane intumwa z’u Rwanda mu mishyikirano ya Arusha bagomba kuzirikana ko imishyikirano igeze aho idakinishwa kandi ko Inkotanyi zifite imitego myinshi.”

Imbaraga za politiki cyane kumenya icyo urwanira, diplomasi, igisirikare n’ubufatanye muri politiki n’abandi nizo zari imbaraga bo bitaga imitego.

Ibya MRND byatewe utwatsi

Ibi bitekerezo bya MRND intumwa za leta zabizanye mu mishyikirano. Ari Inkotanyi, ari abahuza ndetse n’indorerezi z’amahanga, barabisetse. Gutinyuka ukavuga ko Inkotanyi ari NRA byagaragaye nk’ubugoryi kurusha kwirengagiza ukuri. Gutekereza ko habaho ishyaka rigizwe n’Impunzi zitahutse bikaba akandi gahomamunwa.

N’ibyo byo gutinyuka kuvuga ko FPR igomba kwubaha leta yiyemeje kurwanya, ubwabyo byahindutse nk’urwenya; narwo rutari urwenya rw’umunyabwenge. Kuba hari harabaye intambara igatuma haba imishyikirano yo kuyirangiza, ni uko hari ibyo leta iriho itakoze cyangwa yishe.

Leta iheza abayo igafata bamwe ikabita “inyenzi” cyangwa “inyangarwanda,” uyubaha ute? Leta yica abayo uyiha icyubahiro uhereye he? Leta icinyiza uburezi ikagira intekerezo y’uko “umurimo ari uguhinga ibindi bikaba amahirwe” wayubaha ushingiye kuki?

Uko kwibeshya n’ubugome biri mu byatumye ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana n’ubw’abiyise Abatabazi busenyuka burundu.  Ku wa 30 Ukwakira, 1992 hasinywe amasezerano ya mbere yo gushyiraho Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho Yaguye. Ayo masezerano, mu mateka, ni ikimenyetso cy’ibyo Perezida Kagame yavuze byo gutsinda ntiwigambe.

Inkotanyi zagiye gushyikirana ari uko bigaragaye ko ku rugamba leta ya Habyarimana Juvenal itibashirije. Imishikirano yabaga hagati y’impande ebyiri. Leta na FPR. Ni nako umuhuza n’indorerezi babibonaga kuva mu ntangiriro. FPR-Inkotanyi yemeye kwicisha bugufi yanga kujya mu mwanya ikwiriye. Aho FPR itadohoraga ni ahari ibibangamira amahame yayo.

FPR yemeye ko MRND igumana Perezidansi na Minisiteri 5, yo ibona Minisiteri 5 zirimo uwa Visi-Minisitiri w’Intebe aho gushaka nibura Minisitiri w’Intebe kuko ntawari kubyanga iyo iwushaka. Uwo mwanya w’umukuru wa guverinoma wahawe MDR yongerewe na Minisiteri 3 kimwe na PL na PSD zabonye minisiteri nk’izo. Ishyaka PDC rya Nyakwigendera Nayinzira Jean Nepomuscene rihabwa Minisiteri imwe (1).

Ariko siko MRND yabishakaga. Ku itariki ya 20 Ugushyingo 1992, Matayo Ngirumpatse Umunyamabanga mukuru wayo, yandikiye Minisitiri Ngulizira ibaruwa No394/001.001 isa nimuha amabwiriza ku buryo imishyikirano ikwiye gukorwa cyane cyane ku igabana rya za minisiteri. Mu myanya icumi ARD bashakaga babonye itanu yahawe MRND kuko ayo mashyaka yandi arimo CDR nta gaciro yahawe.

Ariko, icyiza ni uko Ngirumpatse yemeje ko hari ubufatanye bwa politiki buri hagati ya FPR-Inkotanyi y’amashyaka ya politiki mu Rwanda.  Ngirumpatse yateganyije uburyo (scenario) bubiri z’uburyo byakorwa, abagabana abashyira mu bice bibiri. Icya mbere ari ARD yateguraga jenoside, icya kabiri ari abashaka ko ibintu bihinduka. Aribo Ngirumpatse yise “Les forces Démocratiques de Changement (FDC) et autres formations ou partis de même tendance qui comprennent le FPR, le MDR, le PL, le PSD et le PSR.”  PDC yo bari bakiyishyira ahantu hagati bumva bazayiyegereza ariko biza kunanirana, imishyikirano irangira iri kumwe na FPR.

Amaherezo, abafatanyije na FPR bashaka ko ibintu bihinduka, uretse MDR yanze kwitandukanya na gakondo yayo kugeza ubwo iseswa, baracyari kumwe. Ndetse umuryango wariyongereye.  Abo muri ARD, n’ababasanze bavuye muri FDC bagashinga Hutu-Pawa, abakiriho barangara, barafunzwe cyangwa barububa!

…Birakomeza

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One thought on “Ubufatanye bwa FPR n’andi mashyaka mu kubaka u Rwanda si ubwa 2017

  1. Pingback: Uko FPR Yahoze Niko Iri, Ni Nako Izahora #Rwanda #ToraKagame #RwandaDecides | umuvugizi

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