Niba Hari Abafite Ubwoba mu Rwanda no mu Mahanga— Menya Ikibubatera

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Hari ibihe bibiri haduka abantu n’ibinyamakuru ku isi, bahagurukira kuvuga u Rwanda uko rutari. Ni mu gihe haba hari amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu, no mu gihe cyo kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Mu mwaka w’2017, kimwe no mu matora y’2003 n’2010, haravugwa ubwoba. Ngo n’ubwo ubona abanyarwanda bishimye, bajya kwamamaza Perezida Kagame Paul, ngo bishwe n’ubwoba.

Muri abo bose baca icyo gikuba nta n’umwe uvuga icyo abanyarwanda batinya ngo akidomeho urutoke. Urebye, abavuga ko abanyarwanda bafite ubwoba, nibo babufite kubera ibyo u Rwanda rwagezeho kandi nabo bemera. Bafite ubwoba bwo kubona hari abantu bagombaga gupfira gushira ntibishoboke.

Hari abagombaga kwicwa n’ubukene cyangwa bakaba imbata zabwo ariko Perezida Kagame na FPR ayobora bakabirwanya. Abo banyamahanga n’abanyarwanda mbarwa barota ubwoba mu Rwanda, ni uko bari bazi ko umutekano muke utazagabanuka, umutekano ubaye mwiza mu Rwanda agahinda karabica.

Nyuma leta y’abaJenosideri imaze gutsindwa, abo bahekuye u Rwanda bongeye kwisuganya ngo bagaruke ku butegetsi ku ngufu, nabwo baratsindwa. Ababafashakaga muri uwo mushinga wapfubye ntibigeze bareka kujiginywa.

Abavuga ko umunyarwanda yishwe n’ubwoba, bemeza ko Perezida Kagame Paul yagejeje byinshi ku banyarwanda. Bemera ko u Rwanda rufite umuvuduko udasanzwe mu majyambere. Niba hari ubwoba umunyarwanda afite ni ubwo kuba yasubira inyuma habi yahoze.

Mu bavuga ubwoba mu banyarwanda ntawuhakana ko nta munyarwanda ucyicwa n’inzara cyangwa ngo apfe azize  kubura ubuvuzi kubera kugira ubwishingizi. Niba hari ubwoba abantu bagira, ni ubwo kwicwa n’umukeno n’inzara.

Abavuga ubwoba mu banyarwanda, bemera ko nta munyarwanda uhezwa mu mashuri no mu kazi. Icyo abanyarwanda bakwikanga ni icyagarura politiki mbi nk’izo FPR-Inkotanyi yatsinze. Aho ruswa itari cyangwa irwanywa cyane nko mu Rwanda abantu ntibagura uburenganzira bwabo. Ubwoba umunyarwanda yagira ni uko ruswa yakwongera kubicikiriza.

Muri abo batekerereza umunyarwanda nta n’umwe ushidikanya ko u Rwanda ari intangarugero ku isi mu bijyanye n’uburinganire bw’umugabo n’umugore. Bakanemera ko ari mu bihugu bifite umutekano uhagije cyane ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu kw’isi. Umuntu agira ate ubwoba mu mutekano usesuye? Ubwo bwoba buvugwa ni ubuhe?

Hari ikintu kimwe Umunyarwanda atihanganira. Ni icyahungabanya ubumwe bwabo. Hari abantu biyita abanyapolitiki nk’ababa mu mitwe ya FDU-Inkingi, FDLR, RNC, ISHEMA ya Padiri Thomas Nahimana …n’utundi nk’utwo bacyumva politiki z’amoko zikwiye kugaruka mu gihugu. Abo nta mwanya bazabona. Niba ari abo bavuga ko bafite ubwoba, bazabumarana igihe kinini wenda banabupfane. Nta kudohora bizigera bibaho kandi bifite amateka y’aho imvugo na politiki by’urwango byagejeje igihugu amahanga arebera.

Abo bavuga ubwoba mu Banyarwanda mu mwaka w’2017, nibamenye ko ibyo bavuga nta gishya kirimo. Kuvuga ubwoba mu banyarwanda ni umwihariko w’abagikomeye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, n’abahakana bagapfobya icyo cyaha. Hari gihamya mu magambo ya Twagiramungu Faustin, Nahimana Thomas, Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza n’abandi nk’abo. Hari n’ibitangazamakuru nka BBC na VOA byakwije iyo ngengabitekerezo.

Ntanze urugero kuri umwe muri abo, ni ibyavuzwe na Ingabire Victoire muri Mutarama 2010 avuga ko ngo agarutse mu Rwanda nk’umukiza wo kumara abanyarwanda ubwoba. Uko yabivuze ni uku. Abanyarwanda bafite ubwoba mu Rwanda no hanze yarwo barahari. Ni abifuza gukomeza gukwiza ingengabitezo ya Jenoside, guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi—bibangamira Ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda.

Kubaka ubunyarwanda no kurwanya ingengabitekerezo n’ihakana bya Jenoside ni impanga

Ihakana n’ipfobya bya Jenoside biri mu nkingi zubakirwaho ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.  Akenshi, uhakana icyo cyaha aho cyabaye hose, ni uba yaragikoze cyangwa yarakirebereye. Undi ni uwagize akagambane mu ikorwa ryacyo. Uwa gatatu ni ushyigikira abakoze Jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yabo cyangwa se injiji zabeshywe n’ibyiciro mbanje kuvuga. Muri izo njiji hakabamo abanyamakuru bamwe b’abanyamahanga batamitswe bakamira ikinyoma n’iyo ngengabitekerezo gica bunguri.

Kwubaka Ubunyarwanda ni imwe mu ntwaro zikomeye mu kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside nabyo, ni uburyo bw’ingenzi bwo kubaka Ubunyarwanda.

Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda ryarabizirikanye. Umunyarwanda ufite ubwoba bwo kuvuga imvugo iroga ni uzi ibiteganyijwe mu Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo mu 2003 ryavuguruwe mu 2015.

Ku buryo bwumvikana iryo tegeko ribereye ayandi inkingi ya mwamba cyangwa mwikorezi, rivuga kenshi ibishimangira kwubaka ubunyarwanda no kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Irangashingiro ritangira rivuga ngo “Twebwe, Abanyarwanda” …dufite amahirwe yo kugira Igihugu kimwe, ururimi rumwe, umuco umwe n’amateka y’igihe kirekire dusangiye bigomba gutuma tugira imyumvire imwe y’aho tugana”

Ko “Kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi igahitana abana b’u Rwanda barenga miliyoni, tutibagirwa n’amateka mabi yaranze Igihugu cyacu;”

Ko “Guhora twumva ko ubumwe n’ubwiyunge by’Abanyarwanda ari kimwe mubigize nkingi y’iterambere;”

“Ko ari icyemezo twafashe gukumira no guhana icyaha cya Jenoside, kurwanya ihakana n’ipfobya bya Jenoside, kurandura burundu ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’ibyo igaragariramo byose, amacakubiri n’ivangura bishingiye ku moko, ku turere n’ibindi ibyo ari byo byose;”

“Kubumbatira indangagaciro zacu zishingiye ku muryango, ku bupfura, ku gukunda Igihugu no guharanira ko inzego zose z’ubutegetsi bwa Leta zikora mu nyungu z’Abanyarwanda twese;”

Itegeko Nshinga rigashimangira ko “Twebwe Abanyarwanda” ari uburenganzira bwacu ntavogerwa kandi ntavuguruzwa bwo kwihitiramo uko Igihugu cyacu kigomba kuyoborwa.

Hakaba n’izindi ngingo nyinshi zishimangira ibyo twiyemeje: Ko ururimi rw’Igihugu ari Ikinyarwanda; (Art.8) intego y’u Rwanda ikaba “UBUMWE, UMURIMO, GUKUNDA IGIHUGU.”(Art.9)

Amwe mu mahame remezo ari ku isonga ni:

  • Gukumira no guhana icyaha cya Jenoside, kurwanya ihakana n’ipfobya bya Jenoside no kurandura burundu ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’ibyo igaragariramo byose; [Art. 10(1)]
  • Kurandura burundu ivangura n’amacakubiri bishingiye ku bwoko, akarere n’ibindi, no gushyira imbere ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda; [Art. 10 (2)]
  • Umuco wacu nk’abanyarwanda ni isoko yo kwihesha agaciro no kwishakamo ibisubizo bitubereye (Art. 11)
  • Buri Munyarwanda afite uburenganzira ku gihugu kandi ko nta n’ushobora kukimucamo; ubwo burenganzira akabugira ku bwenegihugu nyarwanda, ku buryo ntawe ushobora kwamburwa ubwenegihugu nyarwanda bw’inkomoko; (Art.25) Uburenganzira bwo kuva mu Rwanda no n’ubwo kurugarukamo; (Art. 26) ubwo kugira uruhare mu buyobozi bw’Igihugu n’ubwo kujya mu mirimo ya Leta hashingiwe ku bumenyi n’ubushobozi bwabo; (Art. 27) kugira uburenganzira bungana.[1]
  • Imitwe ya politiki mu Rwanda igomba buri gihe kugaragaramo ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda …mu gushaka abayoboke, gushyiraho inzego z’ubuyobozi, mu mikorere no mu bikorwa byayo, kandi ntihagire icyo yakora gihungabanya ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda… (Art. 56)
  • Kubaka ubunyarwanda binagaragara mu ndahiro y’abayobozi bose bagomba kurahira mbere yo gutangira imirimo yabo, uhereye kuri Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda (Art.102) ndetse n’abandi. (Art. 63)
  • Intego n’ibikorwa byo kubaka ubunyarwanda no kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside binashimangirwa no gushyirwaho kwa za Komisiyo n’Inteko by’igihugu byihariye. Izo ni nka Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu; Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge; Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside; Urwego rw’Umuvunyi; Urwego rushinzwe Intwari z’Igihugu, Imidari n’Impeta by’ishimwe; n’Inteko Nyarwanda y’Ururimi n’Umuco. (Art. 139)

Hari n’Inama y’Igihugu y’Umushyikirano isuzuma uko “ubuzima bw’Igihugu n’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda bihagaze. (Art. 140) kimwe na Komite y’Abunzi yashyizweho gukemura amakimbirane no kubaka ubumwe n’imibanire myiza y’Abanyarwanda. (Art.141)

Uwibaza ko yapfa kwica ibiteganywa n’Itegeko Nshinga “Twebwe Abanyarwanda”  tugenderaho, niyemere ayoboke cyangwa aceceke.

Ubumwe, umutekano n’imibereho myiza by’Abanyarwanda ni inkingi y’ibikorwa byose bya politiki u Rwanda rushingiyeho. Kuva ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda bwabaho, icyo aricyo cyose cyaza gishaka kubihungabanya kibura aho kimenera. By’umwihariko ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.

Ku itariki ya 4 Kanama 1993, Leta ya Habyarimana yasinyanye na FPR-Inkotanyi amasezerano y’amahoro, Arusha muri Tanzania. Ni amasezerano yarimo amahame meza agifite agaciro. Barayanze bahitamo Jenoside. Bararwana baratsindwa. Abanze ayo mahoro n’ababashyigikiye bahorana ubwoba bwo kujya ahabona ngo biyerekane bagatuma abatazi amateka y’u Rwanda ngo babavugire ko mu Rwanda hari ubwoba. Urubanza rwaraciwe mu 2015.

Ku itariki ya 4 Kanama 2017 ni umunsi w’amatora y’umukuru w’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda. Ni itariki izaba ishimangira icyo “Twebwe Abanyarwanda” twiyemeje. Abatinya ibyemezo byafashwe n’abanyarwanda bakwiye gusanga abandi aho guhera mu bwoba bitera.

Biracyakomeza….

 

[1] Art. 5 y’Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda ryo muw’1991 niyo ivuga ku bwenegihugu: “Ubwenegihugu bw’u Rwanda n’ibigomba gushingirwaho mu kwemererwa ubwenegihugu bigenwa n’itegeko”.

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