Habyarimana yashatse kurara i Dar es Salaam kubera ubwoba

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Na: Tom Ndahiro

Ndahamya ko ibinyoma byagiye bivugwa ku iyicwa rya Habyarimana, ari ho ha mbere hakurangira uwamwishe. Ibinyoma byakwijwe n’abasirikare bakuru bo mu ngabo zatsinzwe barimo na Jenerali Gratien Kabiligi. Ku itariki ya 8/9/1995, Umubiligi witwa Filip Reyntjens, yandikiye Gratien Kabiligi amusaba amakuru ku iyicwa rya Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana, cyane cyane ku bivugwa kuri FPR-Inkotanyi.

Mu gisubizo cya Kabiligi cyo ku itariki ya 12/9/1995, yumvishije Reyntjens ko abishe Habyarimana nta kabuza ari Inkotanyi, kandi ibigisasu cyarashe iyo ndege cyarasiwe kuri CND, aha inteko ishinga amategeko ikorera. Iki gisubizo, umuntu ashobora kwibaza niba cyari icy’umusirikare usanzwe. Guhera ku itariki ya 17/4/1994, Jenerali Kabiligi niwe wari wungirije umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za Leta. Niba umuntu ashobora kubeshya atyo, icyo atabeshyera FPR, ni iki? Uyu Reyntjens, n’ubwo atigeze akoresha inyandiko ya Kabiligi, nawe imyemerere ye ni nk’iy’abajenosideri ko Inkotanyi ari zo zishe Habyarimana bigatera jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Abashinjwa kuba Nyirabayazana

Mu nyandiko iheruka, nashoje ndarikira abasomyi kuzabagezaho icyo abashobora kuba ari bo bishe Juvenal Habyarimana—banditse bayobya uburari. Kimwe muri ibyo ni aho basobanura igituma yaratashye ijoro n’ubugambanyi bw’Abakuru b’Ibihugu duturanye. Mu byo badasobanura n’icyo baheraho bavuga ko yari yanzwe.

Mu nyandiko  ya FAR yo mu Ukuboza 1995, abashinjwa kugira uruhare mu itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa by’umugambi wo “kwica Perezida Habyarimana no gukorera Jenoside Abahutu” guhera mu 1990 ni: Perezida Yoweri Kaguta Museveni wa Uganda n’Ingabo za NRA; Bill Clinton wahoze ari Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika na Leta ye; Perezida Ali Hassan Mwinyi wahoze ayobora Tanzania; Madamu Linda Chalker wari Minisitiri mu Bwongereza; bamwe (batavugwa) mu bategetsi b’Ububiligi na Perezida Petero Buyoya w’u Burundi n’ingabo ze. Abandi bashinjwa na FAR ni General Romeo Dallaire wayoboraga ingabo za MINUAR na Colonel Luc Marchal wayoboraga ingabo z’Ababiligi.

Ibiregwa Mwinyi na Museveni

Muri iyo nyandiko ya FAR (1995) kimwe n’iya FDLR (2001) nahisemo kwerekana ubugambanyi buregwa ba Perezida Mwinyi, Museveni, Ababiligi na Jenerali Romeo Dallaire. Aba bose, ku bajenosideri bari ibyitso by’Inkotanyi bari mu mugambi umwe.

Inyandiko za FAR na FDLR ntizica iruhande. Iya ex-FAR ivuga ko ubugambanyi bwa Perezida, Mwinyi na Leta ye ya Tanzania bugaragara. Ahanini berekana ko bari mu mugambi wo gutuma Perezida Habyarimana ataha bwije. Nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubugambanyi bavuga ko ibaruwa ya mbere itumira inama yerekanaga ko abakuru b’ibihugu bagombaga guhurira Arusha. Gusa, ngo inama yaje kubera ahatari hateganyijwe mbere, bikaba byarahindutse iminsi ibiri mbere y’uko iba kandi ngo byabaye nta bisobanuro bitanzwe. Kuri bo ngo Arusha hari hafi ya Kigali na Bujumbura kurusha Dar es Salaam inama yari yimuriwe.  Ex-FAR bakibaza bati: “Ibyo ntibyari mu mugambi wo kworoshya operasiyo hongerwa uburebure bw’urugendo?”

Icya kabiri barega Perezida Mwinyi na Leta ye ni ugukerereza nkana inyandiko y’amasezerano yari yakozwe mu rurimi rw’igifaransa, ku buryo ngo byabaye ngombwa ko bayisinyira ku kibuga cy’indege bituma bagenda ijoro. Ibyo ngo Habyarimana yabonaga bibangamiye umutekano we bituma ashaka kurara muri Tanzania ikitagaranya.

Inyandiko ya FDLR yo mu 2001 ishimangira ibi ivuga ko Habyarimana yagaragarije mugenzi we Perezida Mwinyi impungenge ku mutekano we, kugera n’aho yamusabye kumwemerera akarara i Dar es Salaam ariko ngo Perezida Mwinyi aranga kuko abashinzwe protocole batari babyiteguye; gusa n’ubwo FDLR yanditse ibi, ntaho umugore wa Habyarimana Agatha Kanziga we n’umuhungu we Jean Luc Habyarimana barabivuga kugeza n’ubu.

Ibindi barega Tanzania nk’ubugambanyi ngo ni ukuba Perezida Mwinyi na Leta ye baranze kwohereza ubutumwa bw’akababaro Rwanda Perezida wabo amaze kugwa mu ndege. Banashinja iyo Leta kuba yarabaye iya mbere kwemera ubutegetsi bwa FPR-Inkotanyi. Ukuri kwabyo nibo bakuzi njyewe sinakubeshya.

Ikindi cyavuzwe na Jean Kambanda, nshingiye ku mbanziriza-mushinga w’igitabo cye nakomojeho ubushize, ni uko ngo Habyarimana yari yaburiwe ko ashobora kwicwa. Ibyo byari byakozwe na Perezida Mobutu SeseSeko wa Zaire, ndetse n’umuntu ukomeye muri Perezidansi y’Ubufaransa.[1] Muri iyo nyandiko Kambanda yafatanywe i Nairobi igaragaza ko yari yayandikiye n’ijambo ry’ibanze ku itariki ya 29 Gicurasi 1997.

Ubugambanyi barega Perezida Yoweri Museveni bugira aho buhurira n’ibyo barega Perezida Ally Hassan Mwinyi, ni ugukerereza Ikinani Habyarimana ngo atahe ijoro. Bavuga ko Museveni yakererewe kugera aho inama yabereye i Dar es Salaam, akahagera amasaha abiri n’igice, nyuma y’igihe cyateganyijwe, bikaba byaragize ingaruka ku gihe inama irangirira.

Uretse gukererwa, ngo Perezida Museveni yakererezaga n’inama nkana kuko ngo ngo yifataga mu gihe cy’inama agatera urwenya ubundi akanyuzamo akisinziriza, yakanguka agasaba ko bongera gutangira bushya, mbese ngo yishakiraga ko inama iza kurangira bwije.

Uretse ibyo gukerereza inama kimwe na Perezida Mwinyi, ngo ku itariki 10 Mata 1994, hari uwo Perezida Museveni yabwiye ko “igihe cyo gukemura ikibazo cyari kigeze.” Uwaganiriye na Museveni ntavugwa muri iyi nyandiko ya Ex-FAR.

Ibirego ku Babiligi na Dallaire

Barega Gen. Dallaire na Col. Marchal ko iminsi ibiri mbere y’uko Habyarimana araswa babajije umwe muri ba Ofisiye b’u Rwanda ngo ni nde wasimbura Habyarimana mu gihe agize impanuka agapfa. Banarega kandi MINUAR kuba itararinze umutekano w’Ikibuga cy’Indege bigatuma Umukuru w’Igihugu yicwa.

Leta y’abajenosideri gushinja Ababiligi urupfu rwa Habyarimana ntabwo byakozwe nyuma ya Jenoside. Itangazo rya Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya guverinoma ya Kambanda na Sindikubwabo ryo ku wa 15 Mata 1994 risobanura “Amakuba u Rwanda rwahuye nayo” wumva mu mvugo iziga bashinja Ababiligi.

Ku itariki ya 20 Mata 1994, uwari uhagarariye u Rwanda muri Zaire, Ambasaderi Etienne Sengegera yagiranye ikiganiro kirambuye na radiyo “Voix du Zaire”. Muri icyo kiganiro yatinze asobanura ko bazi neza ko ari Ababiligi bishe Perezida Habyarimana. Avuga ko leta ahagarariye ifite ibimenyetso bifatika bituma abyemeza.

Dr. Augustin Ngirabatware wari Minisitiri w’Igenamigambi w’iyo guverinoma y’abajenosideri yagiranye ikiganiro na Radio Africa No 1. ku itariki 27 Mata 1994, muri icyo kiganiro Ngirabatware yashimangiye ko bari bazi neza ko Ingabo za FPR zitari zifite za Missile SAM 7.

Ex-FAR kandi irega abasirikare b’Ababiligi bari muri MINUAR ko ku itariki ya 6 Mata 1994 bakoresheje ibirori muri Hotel Merdien byagera saa yine z’ijoro bagatangira kunywa shampanye (Champagne), ndetse ngo abo basirikare babwiye abakobwa b’inshuti zabo kuva mu ngo zabo n’imiryango yabo bakimukira muri iyo hoteli.

Hari n’ikinyamakuru cya Hutu-Pawa (Inquisiteur Republicain, No. 003195 cyo muri Nzeri 1995) cyanditse ko mbere y’uko indege ya Habyarimana iraswa hari indege za MINUAR zazengurutse cyane hejuru y’i Masaka.

Ubundi bugambanyi barega MINUAR ni uko ngo igihe gito mbere y’uko indege ya Habyarimana iraswa, MINUAR yatanze itegeko ry’uko indege zigwa n’izihaguruka bikorwa mu burasirazuba bw’ikibuga cy’indege (nk’uko bigenda ubu). Ngo babihinduye kugira ngo indege ya Habyarimana itabacika.

Ku munsi indege ya Habyarimana iraswa, FAR ivuga ko yabonye amakuru y’abatangabuhamya bizewe bababwira ko babonye imodoka y’ijipe y’Abasirikare b’Ababiligi bari muri MINUAR yagenze i Masaka inshuro nyinshi. Iyo modoka ngo yarimo abasirikare babiri, yacaracaye hagati y’Umujyi wa Kabuga n’ikiraro gito kiri kuri Cumi n’icyenda. Ngo aho kuri Cumi n’icyenda bahahagaze inshuro eshatu.

Mu yandi makuru yizewe ngo babonye, ba basirikare babiri baraje bahagarara kuri Cumi n’icyenda saa mbiri n’igice (20h30). Ngo “nyuma y’iminota ibiri cyangwa itatu, bumvise ikintu giturikiye ku gasozi ka Masaka (Rusheshe). Nyuma y’indi minota ibiri cyangwa itatu, hamanutse amajipi abiri  yiruka cyane, ava i Rusheshe agana mu Mujyi wa Kigali atwawe n’Ababiligi.”

Andi makuru yizewe bavuga ko babonye ni ayo FAR bamenye ko abasirikare b’Ababiligi bahanyuze bari bamaze iminsi batata ako gace. Bemeza ko nta wundi bashinja ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana uretse Ababiligi kubera ko nyuma y’urupfu rwa Habyarimana nta yindi modoka yagarutse muri ako gace.

Bati: “Nta gushidikanya ko ari Ababiligi barashe indege ya Perezida…” kuko abatuye ako gace, “uwo mugoroba babonye abasirikare b’Ababiligi bagerageza ibitwaro bihambaye.” Ikindi ngo cyabemeje ko ari abo Babiligi ngo ni uko “ubundi bagendanaga n’Abajandarume b’Abanyarwanda, uwo mugoroba bakaba bari bonyine.” Ikindi cyababwiye ko bari Ababiligi ni uko ngo ari bo bonyine mu bazungu ba MINUAR bavugaga Igifaransa.

Hari n’uwatanze amakuru ko mbere y’uko indege ya Perezida iraswa ababiligi batandatu bazengurukaga muri ako gace guhera saa kumi n’ebyiri z’umugoroba bahagurutse bagana i Kigali kandi ko bya bitwaro babonye (bashingiye ku byo babonye mu bitabo) ari “ibirasa za missile”

Hari kandi n’amakuru y’ubutasi bavuga ko babonye ku wa 14 Gashyantare 1994, aho Ofisiye w’Umubiligi yabwiye mugenzi we muri FAR ko Inkotanyi ziri i Kigali muri CND zifite intwaro nyinsi zirimo na missile yo mu bwoko bwa SAM 7.

Umwanzuro

Niba hari ugushakisha amakuru y’iyicwa rya Perezida Habyarimana, inzira yonyine ni ukwegeranya ibyavuzwe na Komisiyo Mutsinzi ukabihuza n’ibyo ex-FAR n’amashumi yabo bavuga cyangwa bandika. Ubugambanyi babuvuga ku bandi, umugambi bakawushyira kuri FPR n’abo bita inshuti zabo. Icyo badasubiza ni icyo Habyarimana yatinyaga bikagera n’aho asaba kurara i Dar es Salaam igitaraganya. Ukoze iperereza ntusesengure ibinyoma biba mu bajenosideri n’imiryango irimo uwa Habyarimana, uba wahushije. Niko abarimo Pierre Pean, Judi Rever, Jane Corbin, Andreau Merelles n’abandi bamize bunguri ibyo batekewemo bakirinda gusoma inyandiko nkoresha kandi ziri mu ruhame.

[1] Il m’a également été rapporté, qu’au sommet de Dar-es-Salaam, sur les nombreux Chefs d’État qui avaient été annoncés,la plupart d’entre eux ont préféré s’absenter. Il semblerait que le Président du Zaïre, ait annulé son voyage de Dar-es-Salaam et qu’il aurait téléphoné à son “frère et ami Il du Rwanda pour le dissuader de faire ce voyage très risqué à ses yeux. Il paraît qu’il aurait été informé par une très grande personnalité de l’Élysée sur l’attentat qui se préparait. Certains n’hésitent pas à établir un rapprochement entre cette histoire et la découverte dans les jours qui ont suivi l’attentat contre l’avion des Présidents Rwandais et Burundais du corps d’un haut cadre de l’Élysée qui se serait suicidé en se logeant une balle dans la tête.

Kuri Twitter: @TomNdahiro

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