Victoire Ingabire si umunyapolitiki, na FDU-Inkingi ikwiye gucibwa vuba

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Na: Ndahiro Tom

Muri Mata 2014, nanditse ku ndirimbo za Kizito Mihigo zipfobya Jenoside. Kimwe mubyatumye mfata umwanya wo kuzumva no gucengera uburozi buzirimo, ni uburyo zashyigikiwe n’abagikomeye ku mugambi n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Ni aho ibisa bisabirana.

Nabigereranyije n’ahari ibiboze hatajya hihishira kubera ko hadatana n’intumo y’urusazi rukururwa n’umunuko. Mu myaka myinshi maze niga ku bijyanye n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside naje gusanga umuntu ufite iyo ngengabitekerezo n’ababashyigikira hari aho bisa n’uwo munuko ukurura isazi.

Abasangiye ibyo byaha byombi baraziranye, barakundana, barakorana ndetse barwanirana ishyaka. Bagahurira no ku kwanga no guhinyura uwo ari we wese urwanya Jenoside.  Kimwe mu bintu byiza nabonye mu gihe gito Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza afunguriwe, ni uko ubwo bumwe busa n’ubw’umunuko n’ibiwukurikira bwigaragaje.

Hari abamwakiriye i Kigali barimo Maitre Gatera Gashabana usanzwe amwunganira mu Nkiko. Uwo yamwakiriye mu rwego rw’umwuga. Mu bandi bagaragaye ku munsi wa mbere bamwakira ni nka Bernard Ntaganda wa PS-Imberakuri ikorana na FDLR, Uwamahoro Anne Rwigara n’abandi Ingabire Victoire yise abayoboke b’ishyaka rye. Kumenya n’abo bayoboke be nabyo ni ngombwa cyane, kuko kuyoboka FDU-Inkingi bikwiye kuba icyaha. Anne Rwigara nawe yaba ari umuyoboke?

Mu banyamahanga ba mbere banditse bishimira gufungurwa kw’Ingabire ni Umunyakanadakazi witwa Judi Rever, Ababiligi Filip Reyntjens na Peter Verlinden, Umuholandikazi witwa Anneke Vebraeken n’Umunyamerikakazi Ann Garrison. Urutonde rw’abo banyamahanga mvuze ni uko ari inkoramutima z’Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi.

Mu baba mu mahanga hari abanyarwanda bahujwe na bwa bumwe bukomoka ku bitekerezo kirimbuzi. Abake nanditse ni abo nakurikiye ku rubuga rwa Twitter gusa. Kw’isonga hari Ndereyehe Charles Ntahontuye uri no mu bantu b’ingenzi bateguye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Abandi batatanzwe ni abo muri Jambo Asbl higanjemo bene Shingiro Mbonyumutwa (Gustave Mbonyumutwa na Ruhumuza Mbonyumutwa), muramu wa Shingiro witwa Faustin Nsabimana.

Umugore wa Faustin Nsabimana ni Perpetue Muramutse uyobora ishyirahamwe ryitwa Réseau des Femmes pour la Démocratie et la Paix (RFDP). Iyo urebye neza imiterere n’imikorere ya RFDP, ni Urugaga rw’Abagore bahuriye muri FDU-Inkingi cyangwa se rukora ibiyunganira. Kimwe mubigaragaza ubwo bwunganizi ni uko iyo RFDP ari yo yatangije igihembo bise ‘Prix Victoire Ingabire’ nko guha ikuzo Perezida wa FDU-Inkingi.

Kugeza ubu, nta muntu n’umwe urahabwa Prix Victoire Ingabire/Victoire Ingabire Prize atari mu bazwi ko bashyigikira abajenosideri uhereye kuwo cyitiriwe akanabanza kugihabwa. Keretse habaye uwagihawe ntamenyekane. Iki gihembo banita igikombe mu mvugo y’abagitanga cyitwa ko ari icyo guteza imbere demokarasi n’amahoro. Bya he?

Abandi bakiranye ubwuzu gufungurwa kwa Ingabire (ntintuvuze bose) ni Faustin Twagiramungu, Claude Gatebuke (utunzwe no kubeshya ko yacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside atahigwagamo), Thomas Nahimana (ex-Padiri) na Gallican Gasana. Abandi n’abanyamuryango ba FDU-Inkingi bazwi nka Justin Bahunga, Joseph Bukeye, Gaspar Musabyimana, Marcel Nzabona Sebatware, Augustin Munyaneza, Aloys Simpunga, Joseph Matata n’abandi. Ibyo bavuze ni byinshi, byazagira igihe cyabyo cyo kubivuga.

Hari byinshi bivugwa kuli Ingabire, ariko hari kimwe usesengura politiki n’amateka ya vuba y’ u Rwanda n’aka karere dutuyemo akwiye guheraho. Icyo, ni ukwita Ingabire “umunyapolitiki” utavuga rumwe na Leta y’u Rwanda aho kumwita icyo ari cyo. Icyo akwiye kwitwa ni umugore ukunda ubugome.

Mubagira uwo munyarwandakazi “Umunyapolitiki” bari mu byiciro bituruka ku mpamvu eshatu: Ubujiji bw’abatamuzi, Indyandya zirengagiza ukuri zikuzi, n’Abagome bashyigikira Jenoside n’abajenosideri. Iki gice cya gatatu ni nacyo ahanini gicengeza mu bandi.

 

Ubujiji 

Hari abantu benshi cyane, mu Rwanda no mu mahanga batazi abantu nk’Ingabire Victoire n’abo bakorana. Muri aba banyarwanda mvuga harimo imbaga y’urubyiruko rutabarika batangiye kwita ku izina rye ari uko aje mu Rwanda agafatwa, akaburanishwa agafungwa.

Ab’inkwakuzi muri urwo rubyiruko, bagerageje gukurikirana ibyamwanditsweho aburana ariko abenshi ntibashobore kuba babihuza na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mbere no mu 1994. Na n’ubu kubera ko nta byinshi bamuziho ntawita cyane ku magambo avuga ngo bashake kumenya uburemere bwayo.

Muri bo, harimo n’umukobwa we Raissa Ujeneza, uhora kuri murandasi arengera nyina kubera kutamenya ubugome bw’umunbyeyi we. Abenshi bagomba kuba batazi ko yakoranye ndetse akaba agikorana n’abayobozi bateguye bakanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside. Jenoside ni icyaha cy’ubugome bwa politiki. Kugendera kuli iyo politiki bikaba ari ubugome.

No mu Banyarwanda bakuze, hari benshi cyane batigeze bakurikirana ngo bamenye neza abantu bateguye bakanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside, bagatsindwa na FPR-Inkotanyi muw’1994. Nyuma yo gutsindwa barisuganyije bafatanyije n’abandi barimo Ingabire Victoire batangira gutegura umugambi wo kuyihakana ariko banategura kuzayikomeza. Ayo ni amateka afite gihamya.

Ikindi gice cyiganjemo ubujiji ni icy’abanyamahanga batakurikiye iby’u Rwanda usanga amakuru bayahabwa n’abajenosideri n’inshuti zabo, cyangwa se bakabeshywa n’abayobejwe n’abajenosideri n’ababashyigikira. Muri aba abenshi hari abahinduka iyo bamenye ukuri. Ariko ikibabaje ni uko kubera ubujiji bukabije hari abakurikira abajenosideri burundu.

Ikindi cyongera ubutamenya ni ururimi. Imvugo nyinshi ababiba ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside bayikoresha mu Kinyarwanda benshi batazi. Banavuga mu gifaransa cyangwa icyongereza, bakavuga mu mvugo itsinda cyangwa ishushanyito (metaphor). Ibyo bikaba byarakoze cyane mu gihe cya Jenoside ariko bajya kuburana mu nkiko nka ICTR bagatsinda kuko abacamanza batumva ubugome burimo.

Uburyarya no kwirengagiza ukuri

Mu Ukwakira 2016, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Ibihugu by’i Burayi, yemeje umwanzuro uburanira Ingabire Victoire n’abayoboke b’Ihuriro ayoboye rya FDU-Inkingi. Muri uwo mwanzuro wumvamo neza gushyigikira ibitekerezo bye harimo no kwemeza ko gufungwa kwe  byari ku mpamvu za politiki gusa. Iyo politiki bavuga ikaba y’uko yakagombye kuba ari umukandida wiyamamariza kuyobora u Rwanda.

Ni byiza ko Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda yamaganye uwo mwanzuro ikanawumenyesha bagenzi babo b’Iburayi. Ubundi gusura umuntu ufunzwe nta kibi n’igitangaza birimo, ariko iyo bigeze aho biba igikorwa cy’ikimenyetso cyo gupfobya Jenoside si ibyo kurenzaho uruho rw’amazi. Ni na byiza ko ubuyobozi bw’Amagereza mu Rwanda bwangiye intumwa z’iyo Nteko y’Uburayi ziyobowe na Depite Iratxe Garcia Perez, gusura iyo mfungwa bita iya “politiki”.

Urwo rugero rw’iby’Abadepite b’i Burayi ni rumwe gusa muri nyinshi umuntu atarondora zigaragaza kwirengagiza Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakayihindura akantu gato kabaye, bakagahindura nk’akatagize ikindi gakwiye uretse kwibagirana. Si ibanga, uretse amagereza afunze abantu bakuru bateguye bakanakora Jenoside, Uburayi ni wo mugabane wa mbere utuwemo n’abakoze icyo cyaha ndengakamere (bo mu rwego rwo hejuru) batengamaye nta nkomyi. Ni nawo mugabane ufite ba kavukire baho benshi bashyigikiye politiki y’abajenosideri.

Hari imiryango nka Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Medicin Sans Frontiere n’ibinyamakuru byinshi ubu biri muri iri tsinda ry’indyadya n’abirengagiza ukuri. Hari inyandiko na raporo nyinshi byabo banditse berekana uburyo abayobozi bakuru ba Jenoside bisuganyije bagategura guhakana Jenoside n’ingamba zo gukomeza umugambi w’icyaha batashoje uko babyifuzaga. Izo nyandiko na raporo byakozwe ahanini hagati y’imyaka y’1994-1997. Kuba bimaze imyaka irenga makumyabiri gusa, si impamvu na mba yo gutuma byibagirana.

Inyandiko zigaragaza abateguye ibyo guhakana Jenoside n’umugambi wo kuyikomeza, igihe n’ahantu babiteguriye zirahari kandi zirazwi. Inyinshi muri izo nyandiko zashyizwe ahabona ku buryo uwashidikanya wese yazibona abishatse. Ni inyandiko ziri mu ndimi z’Ikinyarwanda, Igifaransa ndetse n’Icyongereza.

Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashiriweho u Rwanda (ICTR) ni urwo gushimirwa kuko rwasemuye nyinshi muri zo. Mu gitabo cyanjye ‘Friends of Evil…’ n’ikindi cya Roland Moerland yise ‘The Killing of Death…’ harimo byinshi. Kubihakana no kubyirengagiza ni ukuburana urwa ndanze.

Ugaragaza ko atazi ko Ingabire Victoire ari umujenosideri mu mivugire no mu mikorere, akaba abivuga atabitewe n’ubujiji nk’ubwavuzwe, abiterwa n’uburyarya no kwirengagiza ukuri. Ibikorwa nk’ibi byo kwirengagiza ukuri, bitera inkunga abagifite umugambi wa Jenoside n’ababashyigikira. Ni nko kuba icyitso cy’umunyacyaha.

Kuvuga iby’uburyarya no kwirengagiza duhereye ku Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Uburayi bifite impamvu. Ibihugu byishyize hamwe, mu mwaka w’1945 byatsinze aba-Nazi bayobowe na Adolf Hitler mu gihugu cy’Ubudage n’Uburayi. Ku isonga hari ibihugu bya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Ubwongereza n’Uburusiya. Nyuma y’iyo ntsinzi hashyizweho politiki yiswe “Denazification”.

Iyo politiki yari iyo kugangahura cyangwa kurogora Uburayi kubera ingaruka za politiki ya Hitler (Exorcising Hitler). Gahunda ziyikubiyemo, iz’ingenzi zari izigamije gutuma nta dusigisigi tw’aba Nazi dusigara mu butegetsi. Icyo bahereyeho cya mbere cyari ukubuza umuntu wabaye mukuru mu ba-Nazi kudasubira muri politiki n’ubutegetsi bwite bwa Leta. Barabikoze baranabyubahiriza. Ibyo Abadepite b’Uburayi barabizi.

Byinshi muri ibyo bihugu, cyane cyane iby’i Burayi biburanira Ingabire, bifite amategeko ahana ibyaha byo kwamamaza, guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside. Muri ibyo bihugu nta munyapolitiki wamamaza amatwara afite icyo ahuriraho n’aba Nazi ushobora kwemerwa muri politiki. Barangiza bati ngaho Rwanda nimwemere Ingabire n’ubugome bwe!

 

Ubugome

Iki gice gikubiyemo abateguye Jenoside n’abashyizeho amahuriro nka RDR yibarutse cyangwa yihinduye FDU-Inkingi. Icyo gice kandi kirimo FDLR utatandukanya na RDR, CLIIR iyoborwa na Matata Joseph, Jambo Asbl, etc. Urebye udushyirahamwe nka Jambo Asbl, CLIIR, Intabaza, SOS Rwanda-Burundi…n’andi mashyirahamwe akora kimwe, ni gahunda yateguwe na ex-FAR na RDR mu mpera z’uw’1994 no mu ntangiriro z’1995.

Hari uwambajije ngo ‘Ingabire Victoire ahurira he n’abajenosideri’? Uyu munyarwandakazi ari mu babaye abayoboke ba mbere ba RDR ndetse aranayiyobora ku rwego rw’isi guhera mu mwaka w’2000. Ingabire ahakana ko adafite ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, ariko akaba yaremereye urukiko mu Rwanda ko yemera ibikubiye mu gitabo cya RDR cyitwa ‘UMURAGE W’AMATEKA’. Icyo gitabo kikaba cyuzuyemo ibyo yihakana. Nanahakana ko atabyemeye azerekane aho yamagana ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ikubiye muri icyo gitabo n’izindi nyandiko.

Hari abashobora kuba baratangajwe ni uko Ingabire yahakanye ko atasabye imbabazi Perezida Paul Kagame. Ni aka ya nda mbi uha amata ikaruka amaraso. Guhakana ukuri si bishya kuri we n’abo bakorana. Inyandiko-Shingiro ya RDR yo ku wa 3 Mata, 1995, ivuga ko nta Jenoside yigeze ibaho mu Rwanda. Ngo niba hari n’iyabaye yabazwa FPR-Inkotanyi. Ng’iryo ihame Ingabire agenderaho.

Ibye byo guhakana si ibyo gusa. Mu kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano cya BBC cyo ku wa 9 Mutarama, 2010 Victoire Ingabire yahakanye ko atigeze aba umuyoboke n’umuyobozi wa RDR yatangiriye i Mugunga. Vuba aha afunguwe arabyivugira kuri Radiyo Urumuri. Ubu nihagira umubaza ibyo yavugiye kuri Radiyo Urumuri azabihakana.

Mubatangije bakanayobora RDR, benshi muri bo barafashwe baburanishwa na ICTR. Bake bararekurwa abandi bakatirwa gufungwa kubera Jenoside. Abatarafunzwe bose, uretse umwe, ugakuramo n’abapfuye, ntawagarutse mu Rwanda uretse Ingabire. Nawe akaba yaragarutse azi ko ashobora gufungwa kubera ibyaha yikeka cyangwa yiyiziho.

Bamwe mubatangije RDR muri Mata 1995, nka Ndereyehe Charles (waje no kuyibera Perezida) na Joseph Bukeye alias Chris Nzabandora wayibereye umuvugizi igihe kirekire, bombi ni abayobozi bakuru ba FDU-Inkingi. Bukeye ni Visi-Perezida wa mbere, Ndereyehe ni we ushinzwe kunononsora ingamba (Strategy).

Undi mubabaye abayobozi ba RDR rugikubita ni Justin Bahunga ubu akaba ari umuvugizi wa FDU-Inkingi. Bahunga kandi yari umuvugizi wa leta ya MRND-CDR akorera i Kampala mbere no mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi mu 1994.

Ku nyungu z’abatazi Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, uyu munyarwandakazi uyobora ihuriro rigendera ku bitekerezo by’Ubugome, yayoboye RDR aba mu gihugu cy’Ubuholandi. Iki gihugu ni nacyo Ndereyehe abamo. Icyicaro cy’iryo huriro rishyigikiye Jenoside ryabarizwaga aho Ingabire atuye n’umugabo we Lin Muyizere. Address ya RDR ni nayo yabaye icyicaro cya FDU-Inkingi.

Ataranaba umuyobozi wa RDR ku rwego rw’isi yanabaye umuyobozi wa l’Union des Forces Démocratiques Rwandaises (UFDR) Section-Hollande. Byose byabarizwaga kuri Postbus 3124 2280 GC, Rijswijk, Netherlands. Téléphone No 00-31-623075674, bakagira na Fax No 00-31-847450374. Ikinyamakuru cya RDR cyitwa Forum Rwandais No 8, cyo muri Werurwe 2000, kigaragaza ko UFDR yakoreshaga iyo address na Lin Muyizere ariko bakanagira Tél/fax: (31)-(0)-180633822.

Iyo UFDR yari impuzamashyaka iyoborwa na Faustin Twagiramungu, RDR ikaba imwe muri iyo mpuzamashyaka. Ibi bikanerekana ko Ingabire yayoboraga RDR muri Holland akanayobora Impuzamashyaka muri icyo gihugu. Kuri iyi address ni ho Ingabire yari asanzwe abarizwa akiyobora RDR ku rwego rw’igihugu atarayobora RDR ku rwego rw’isi.

Hakorwa iki?

Muri Nyakanga 1994, nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda hafashwe icyemezo gisa na ‘Denazification’ n’ubwo kitahawe ubukana nk’ubw’icy’Iburayi. Icyo cyemezo ni ugucibwa muri politiki kwa MRND/CDR n’amashumi yayo nka PECO, PADER, PARERWA, PD … n’andi. Mu ntangiro z’2003, nyuma y’imyaka hafi icyenda, ishyaka MDR naryo ryaraciwe n’ubwo byatinze.

Ibyakozwe byakwitwa ‘Deparmehutisation’. Ibyakozwe i Burayi siko byakorwa mu Rwanda kubera imiterere y’u Rwanda n’amateka y’igihugu. Ariko hari ibyakozwe kandi ari ngombwa.

Ayo mashyaka uko yavuzwe, yaciwe kubera ingengabitekerezo yagenderagaho. Guhindura izina kwa MRND/CDR igahinduka RDR bwacya ikabyara UFDR ikaza kwihindura FDU-Inkingi bikwiye kuba isomo.

MRND yo mu 1975 yahinduye inyito mu 1991 iguma ari MRND hiyongereyemo ubukana bw’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Mu mwaka w’1992 MRND ibyara CDR, muri 1993 havuka impuzabugome bwiswe Hutu-Pawa. Mu 1994 Hutu-Pawa ikora Jenoside yateguye yibwira ko ari yo nzira yo kugira ubutegetsi. Baratsindwa.

Iyo Pawa, cyane cyane abagize uruhare mu gushingwa kwa CDR, n’aba CDR nyirizina, mu 1995 bashinze ‘Rassemblement pour le Retour des Réfugiés et la Démocratie au Rwanda’ (RDR) icyura “Impunzi na Demokarasi”. Kubera ko gucyura impunzi byarangiye mu 1997, bakomeje kwitwa ko bazacyura impunzi basanga ntacyo bivuze.

Mu mwaka w’2003, ihinduka ‘Rassemblement Républicain pour la Démocratie au Rwanda’ (RDR), ivana gahunda yo gucyura impunzi mu nyito iyisimpuza “Repubulika” cyakora inyito mu magambo ahinnye ikomeza kuba RDR. Icyo gihe cyo kwinjiza “Abaharanira Repubulika” mu nyito RDR yayoborwaga na Ingabire Victoire.

Mu ngengabitekerezo ya MDR, CDR, MRND, RDR na FDLR amagambo “Abaharanira Repubulika” na “Demokarasi” ntibisobanura Repubulika na Demokarasi y’abanyarwanda. Ahubwo, bivuga ubutegetsi bw’Abahutu gusa kandi b’indobanure. Si na “Repubulika” na “Demokarasi” nkuko bizwi ahandi.

Uko RDR iyoborwa na Ingabire na Ndereyehe yahinduye izina hakavanwamo “Impunzi” ni nako MRND yabigenje mu 1991. MRND yo mu 1975 yari ‘Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développement’. Ijambo “révolutionnaire” rivamo risimburwa na “Abaharanira Repubulika” na “Demokarasi”, bituma MRND nshya iba ‘Mouvement Républicain National pour la Démocratie et le Développement’. Itandukaniro rya MRND na MDR, mu nyito ni uko hamwe harimo “National” na “Développement”.

Uwo mukino w’amagambo ahishahisha ingengabitekerezo y’ivangura na Jenoside   unayibona aho l’Union des Forces Démocratiques Rwandaises (UFDR) bakuraho ijambo “Rwandaise” ahasigaye “Union” igasimburwa na “Unifiées” iza nyuma ya “Forces Democratiques” bikabyara FDU hiyongereyeho Inkingi.

Guhindura amazina ingengabitekerezo ikaba ya yindi ntacyo bivuze. FDU-Inkingi ikwiye gucibwa muri politiki, no kuyamamaza bikaba icyaha kuko n’amategeko arahari. Ntibizaba ari ubwa mbere ntibikwiye no kuba ubwa nyuma. Amateka y’u Rwanda afite umwihariko muri Africa ariko si ku isi. Kureka FDU-Inkingi n’abayamamaza bakidegembya ni ukwibagirwa vuba.

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2 thoughts on “Victoire Ingabire si umunyapolitiki, na FDU-Inkingi ikwiye gucibwa vuba

  1. Pingback: Uko Abakoze u #Rwanda mu nda Bakorana, n’Interahamwe Zikidegembya | umuvugizi

  2. Pingback: Abakwiza Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu Rwanda Bakwiye Akato | umuvugizi

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