FDLR : Ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ntigombera imyaka y’amavuko, irigishwa

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Na: Tom Ndahiro

Intangiriro

Mu kiganiro cyayo, Imvo n’Imvano yo kuwa 8 na 15 Kamena 2013, Radio BBC Gahuzamiryango yagihariye impaka zijyanye n’uko leta y’u Rwanda ikwiye gushyikirana n’umutwe uzwi ku izina rya FDLR. Umwanya icyo kiganiro cyamaze ku maradiyo ni iminota magana abiri na mirongo ine kuko buri munsi cyahise kabiri (120X 2).

Muri icyo kiganiro humvikanyemo abatemera ko iyo mishyikirano ikwiriye kubaho n’abavuga ko ikwiriye kubaho. Numvaga ibyo biganiro ndi ku ruhande rw’abatemera ko iyo mishyikirano ikwiye kubaho kubera zimwe mu mpamvu batanze muri icyo kiganiro kirekire cyanamaze hafi iminsi 14 kuri murandasi (internet). Kubera ko ukiyobora, ariwe Mugenzi Ally Yusufu, asanzwe yishimira guhitisha ibitekerezo bishyigikira cyangwa byamamaza ibisa na FDLR, umwanya munini wahariwe abavuga ko leta y’u Rwanda ikwiye kwemera iyo mishyikirano ikabaho.

Abakurikiranye icyo kiganiro bazibuka ibyavuzwe na ba Dr. Gasana Anastase, Dr. Kambanda Charles, Jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa, Emmanuel Habyarimana, Enock Ruberangabo n’abandi nk’abo harimo n’umuyobozi w’ikiganiro ubwe.  Muri icyo kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano, byarumvikanaga ko Mugenzi yari yarafashe umwanya uhagije wo gushakisha impamvu zishinjura FDLR ko atari umutwe w’iterabwoba ariko akaba yarabuze umwanya wo kubona ko ari umutwe ugendera ku ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’iterabwoba n’ubwo kuri murandasi ubuhamya n’ibyemezo bihagije bihari.

Iyi nyandiko ntitanga impamvu nshya, ahubwo irasobanura ku buryo bwimbitse, biturutse ku bushakashatsi, igituma FDLR ikwiye gukomeza gufatwa nk’umutwe ushingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya jenoside.

Iyi nyandiko kandi ntiyibanda ku bikorwa by’iterabwoba bya FDLR, kuko ari uburyo bumwe gusa ikoresha bwo kuzuza imigambi yayo. Cyakora haranagaragazwa ko mubyo FDLR yigisha abasirikare bayo n’abasivili bari munsi y’ubutegetsi bwayo, birimo ibinyoma bigamije gutera ubwoba abashaka kwitandukanya nayo. Iyi nyandiko inagaragaza ko ingengabitekerezo ya FDLR atari umwihariko wayo ahubwo ifite aho ishamikiye.

1 Kubaho kwa FDLR

Nyuma yo gutsindwa kwa guverinoma y’abajenosideri mu 1994, aho bari mu nkambi mu gihugu cyahoze cyitwa Zaire, abayobozi ba Ex-FAR bashyirishijeho umutwe wiswe Rassemblement pour le Retour des Réfugiés et la Démocratie au Rwanda/ Ihuliro Liharanira Itahuka ry’impunzi na Demokrasi mu Rwanda (RDR)[1] ukaba waraje guhinduka Rassemblement Républicain pour la Démocratie au Rwanda/ Ihuriro Rishingiye kuri Repubulika Riharanira Demokarasi mu Rwanda. Uwo mutwe ukaba warashinzwe ugendera ku matwara n’ingengabitekerezo yo gusoza umugambi batashoje wa jenoside. Nyuma yo gusenywa kw’inkambi zo mu ntara za Kivu y’Amajyepfo n’iy’Amajyaruguru haje gushingwa umutwe wiyise Peuple en Action pour Liberer le Rwanda (PALIR)[2] ukagira n’umutwe wawo w’ingabo witwa ALIR[3]. Uwo mutwe ukaba waragabye ibitero byinshi mu Rwanda, ndetse ukaba waranafashwaga na Leta ya DRC yanagize uruhare mw’ ishingwa ryawo. Uwo mutwe wa PALIR, ukaba ariwo waje kwiyita FDLR.

1.1. Jenoside igizwe n’Ingengabitekerezo kandi irigishwa

Mu bavuganira FDLR, benshi bagaragaza ko ntaho ihuriye na jenoside, ngo kubera ko benshi mubayigize ari bato cyane ku buryo nta ruhare baba baragize mu kurimburwa kw’abatutsi mu mwaka w’1994. Ibi ababivuga ntabwo bumva ko kuba muto, uyoborwa n’abantu bakuru bagize uruhare muri Jenoside ari ikibazo gikomeye kandi gikwiye kwitabwaho by’umwihariko.

Kugirango umenye FDLR icyo aricyo ni ukumenya ingengabitekerezo ishingiyeho, ukanamenya ibyo abayobozi bayo bigisha abayoboke babo. Byabaye ngombwa gukora ubushakashatsi bwo kumenya uwo mutwe n’icyo ari cyo umuntu abivuye imuzi, hibandwa ku nyandiko n’ubuhamya.

 

1.1.1. Ingengabitekerezo iranga FDLR n’imitwe yakomotseho

a. PALIR

Ubushakashatsi bwahereye kuri PALIR. Muri Kanama 2000, Komite nyobozi ya PALIR yashyize ahagaragara imfashanyigisho ku ngengabitekerezo yayo yise “TUMENYE KANDI TURWANYE UMWANZI WACU”.[4] Iyi nyandiko ikaba itanga imirongo migari y’ibitekerezo byaranze uyu mutwe n’iyawusimbuye mu nyito gusa.

Muri iyo mfashanyigisho harimo igice kinini bise “Uburyo abatutsi bakoresheje ngo basubirane ubutegetsi”.  Havugwamo ibitero by’inyenzi muri za 1960, aho ibitero byaturutse n’abo byahitanye, bakavuga ko byibasiraga “abahutu bakomeye” bakicwa urubozo.

Banigisha n’icyo bise “Ibindi bikorwa abatutsi bakoresheje byo kwunganira intambara zabo.” Ibivugwa muri iyi nyandiko ni:

  • Guhindura ubwoko: abatutsi bihindura abahutu mu mpapuro z’ubutegetsi nk’amarangamuntu, bityo ngo bahabwe imyanya yiyongera ku y’abandi batutsi, maze babe benshi mu butegetsi, babone nko kubucengera babuneke;
  • Gushyingira abahutu abatutsikazi (kugira ngo babaneke);
  • Gucengera amadini kugeza ubwo biganza mu bihayimana;
  • Kwinywanisha n’abahutu bakomeye mu butegetsi bwa gisirikare n’abanyapolitiki bakoresheje cyane cyane igitsina gore n’amafaranga; [5]
  • Gucengeza irondakarere mu bahutu n’irondakoko mu batutsi;
  • Gusebya ubutegetsi bw’abahutu mu mahanga n’ibindi byinshi.

Banavuga ko abatutsi bigwijeho umutungo bakanaba ibikoresho by’amahanga ya mpatsibihugu. Ngo mu Rwanda abatutsi bategekana n’abagande, abanyamerika, n’abandi benshi. Banavuga ko hagamijwe gushinga icyo bita Empire Hima-Tutsi. Bati abatutsi n’abahima bafite mu migambi yabo mibisha, kwigarurira uturere twa Karagwe na Buha two muri Tanzaniya.

Muri icyo gice kandi bavuga iby’intambara yo kuva muri 1990, bita iy’Inyenzi-Nkotanyi. Muri make bakavuga ko Inkotanyi zashakaga ibi bikurikira:

  • Kwigarurira abahutu kw’abatutsi bagafata ubutegetsi ku ngufu kandi bakabwikubira;
  • Gutsemba abahutu ngo kugeza ubwo umwana w’umututsi azajya abaza ngo “umuhutu yasaga ate?”;
  • Kugarura mu Rwanda ingoma ya Cyami n’ibijyanye nayo;
  • Gusibanganya ibikorwa by’umuhutu mu mateka y’u Rwanda;
  • Kwigarurira ku ngufu imitungo y’abahutu; no
  • Gupyinagaza abahutu n’abatwa.[6]

Muri izo nyigisho bigishaga ko hari uburenganzira abahutu batagira: uburenganzira ku mutungo,[7] uburenganzira bw’umwenegihugu,[8] uburenganzira bwo gushinga amashyirahamwe n’uburenganzira ku burezi ku buryo ngo nta burenganzira abahutu bagira bwo kujya mu mashuli.

Ku bijyanye n’Ubutabera bigishaga ko: Abahutu bafungirwa ubusa bafungirwa ahantu habi, imfungwa zikicishwa kubura umwuka; hashyizweho Gacaca igamije kurimbura abahutu benshi mu gihe gito, bikorewe mu mirenge yabo; Abanyururu b’abahutu bategekwa kurya imyanda bitumye no kunywa inkari zabo; kandi ko hari uburetwa bushya bwahawe intebe (servitude légalisée).

Iyo mfashanyigisho isobanura ko mu Rwanda nta demokarasi iharangwa, kandi ko igitugu kiri mu Rwanda kirenze ibindi byabaye kuri iyi si. Bati: “Nta handi hantu habaye inzibacyuho y’imyaka icyenda! Inzibacyuho ya mbere y’imyaka itanu yarangiye umugambi wo kumara abahutu utaragerwaho, maze ngo zibone gukoresha amatora zizeye ko abatutsi bari gusigara ari bo benshi. Niyo mpamvu Inyenzi-Nkotanyi zahisemo kongera iyo nzibacyuho, ngo zibanze zisohoze uwo mugambi wazo mubisha wo kumara abahutu.” Ngo hari “umugambi wo guheza abahutu bose mu nzego z’ubutegetsi, cyane cyane abashyira mu gaciro”.[9]

Mu rwego rw’ubukungu, imibereho myiza y’abaturage n’umuco, PALIR yigisha ibi bikurikira:

Ubutegetsi bw’Inyenzi-Nkotanyi burangwa no gucunga nabi ibya rubanda: … kwangiza ibikorwa by’amajyambere, ibihingwa ngandurarugo n’ingengabukungu ntibigitezwa imbere; Abahinzi babujijwe guhinga ngo inzara ibamare; Leta igusha igiciro cy’umusaruro (w’abahutu) ikazamura igiciro cy’ibikorwa by’abatutsi (nk’inyama n’amata) kugira ngo umuhutu akene maze umututsi azamuke; Gutwika amazu y’abaturage, ibigega by’imyaka ndetse n’ibihingwa ngandurarugo mu mirima…

Muri ayo mateka ya PALIR, Inkotanyi zitirirwa urupfu rwa ba Gapyisi, Rwambuka, Bucyana, Gatabazi, Habyarimana, n’abandi. Bakavuga ko urupfu rwa Habyarimana zabukoresheje ngo zigere ku butegetsi. Ngo zikaba zaranakwirakwije ibikoresho mu gihugu, harimo:  Bisesero na paruwasi ya Nyange.

b. RDR

Muri uwo mwaka hasohokaga imfashanyigisho ya PALIR ntatindaho cyane muri iyi nyandiko, hari hanasohotse igisa nayo cyandikiwe i Burayi na RDR. Iyo nyandiko ni igitabo cyitwa UMURAGE W’AMATEKA cyanditswe kikanatangazwa na RDR mu mwaka w’2000.[10] Iki gitabo cy’impapuro 127 gikubiyemo byinshi biranga ingegabitekerezo y’abajenosideri. Igitabo kigaragaza ko cyateguriwe kuba inyigisho y’amateka.

Imirongo migari y’ibiri muri iki gitabo, ndetse n’interuro nyishi zikirimo bikomoka mu nyandiko zanditswe mbere. Zimwe muri izo nyandiko ni iyakozwe n’Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo (ex-FAR)-Ibiro bya kabiri (G2)[11] mu mwaka w’1995[12]. Hari n’indi nyandiko yakozwe n’abari mu ishami rya RDR mu gihugu cya Cameroun muri Kamena 1996.[13]

Gahunda yo guhindura Amateka no gukwirakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside byanakozwe na Sindikubwabo Theodore na Jean Kambanda bamaze kugera muri Zaire biyitaga ko ari ‘leta y’u Rwanda ikorera mu buhungiro’. Iyo ngirwa lLta yashyizeho amatsinda agomba gutegura izo nyigisho. Rimwe muri ayo matsinda riyobowe na Nkurunziza Charles ryakoze inyandiko yashingiweho na RDR bandika UMURAGE W’AMATEKA.[14] Ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside kandi iboneka mu nyandiko ya FDLR y’impapuro 83 mu rurimi rw’igifaransa.[15] Iyo nyandiko inafite n’indi mu ncamake mu cyongereza [16], zombi zikaba ziri kuli internet.

Ijambo ry’ibanze ry’ UMURAGE W’AMATEKA ryanditswe n’umucengezamatwara wa jenoside witwa Charles Ndereyehe Ntahontuye.[17] Ndereyehe yabaye perezida wa RDR asimbuye Nzabahimana Francois, hanyuma aza gusimburwa na Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza. Ibitekerezo byabo ni ubwo bavuga ngo ni “Ukutavuga rumwe na FPR-Inkotanyi”, muby’ukuri ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside niyo ibaranga nkuko inyandiko zabo n’amateka ya RDR bibigaragaza.[18]

Benshi muri abo bitwa ko batavuga rumwe na Leta y’u Rwanda nasanze izina ryabo ryari rikwiye kuba “abatavuga ukuri”; “abashyigikira ubugome”; “abatavuga rumwe n’abashyira mu gaciro”; “abashuka rubanda”; “abanga ukuri”… n’andi mazina yaba akwiranye n’ibyo bakora cyangwa bavuga.[19]

Icyo gitabo ni ibitekerezo bya RDR bemera kandi bemeye gutangaza kuko ibikubiyemo ilyo huliro “ribyemera, kandi mu bacyanditse hakaba halimo n’abayoboke ba RDR.”[20] Mw’ijambo ry’ibanze barashishikariza abantu gusoma ikinyamakuru cyabo “Forum Rwandais”cyacapwaga kandi kikanaba kuli internet.

Ibyanditswe muri ako gatabo n’ibyo bashishikariza abasomyi “iby’ingenzi” bigaragaza ingengabitekerezo ya RDR n’aho ihuriza na FDLR. RDR yifuza ko abasoma ako gatabo babikora bitonze, bakagacengera, bakakaganiraho, maze ibitekerezo birimo bikabafasha mu nzira yo “gutunganya politiki y’igihugu cyacu mu bihe bizaza.”[21] Iyo ugereranyije ibyandikirwaga mu mashyamba ya DR Congo n’ibyandikirwaga i Burayi byumvikanisha icyo ingengabitekerezo mbi ikora mu mitwe y’abayifite. Baririmba imwe kandi batari kumwe.

Mu gitabo cyabo bagira bati: “Twibutse ko FPR…yahimbwe n’abana b’abatutsi bahunze muri 1959 bagamije kwisubiza ubutegetsi bambuwe na Revolisiyo yabaye uwo mwaka bahunzemo iyobowe n’abahutu. Muri uko gushaka gufata ubutegetsi FPR ikagira imigambi yo gutsemba abahutu ihereye ku b’ingenzi, cyane cyane abize kuko itashobora kubategekana igihugu ngo bayemerere. …Uko kurimbura abahutu bagasigaza bake batize bo kubahingira no kubakoresha imirimo y’uburetwa nka mbere ya 1959, binagaragarira cyane ku bantu batahutse, abize bose baricwa bagasigaza abasaza n’abakecuru rukukuri, n’abandi bahutu bake batazi gusoma no kwandika. Biraboneka cyane kandi no mu byaro aho FPR yamaze abantu bose bize, batayiyobotse kuva kera.”[22]

Urebye ibitekerezo bya INGABIRE Victoire Umuhoza n’abandi bitwa abanyapolitiki bahora bahabwa urubuga na BBC-Gahuzamiryango, nta soko yindi y’ibitekerezo uretse ingengabitekerezo yigishijwe muli RDR, PALIR n’icyo yaje guhinduka cyitwa FDLR. Mubyo bavuga usangamo kwigereranya n’abategerejweho agakiza, no kwibonamo abantu bashyira mu gaciro.

Uwitwa Nkiko Nsengimana, wari wungirije Ingabire Victoire muri FDU-Inkingi arabaza ngo: “Ni nde Munyarwanda waba ufite udusigisigi twa Muntu mu mutima we no mu mibereho ye ya buri munsi ushobora guhunza amaso, agaterera agati mu ryinyo, akavunira ibiti mu matwi, maze akaruca akarumira imbere y’amaganya, amarira, iminiho n’imiborogo by’Abanyarwanda muri iki gihe?”

Akisubiza ngo “Ni yo mpamvu mbararikiye impinduramatwara nshya FDU-INKINGI ibereye kw’isonga. Niba Revolisiyo ya 59 yarashobotse, ingoma ya cyami igahirima hakimikwa Repubulika yashimangiwe na Kamarampaka, ni uko abari kw’isonga ry’iyo Revolisiyo banze kwemera akaje bagahitamo kwitanga ngo barengere inyungu za Rubanda.”[23]

c. Isano hagati y’ubukangurambaga bwa PALIR, RDR na FDLR

Mu mfashanyigisho ya PALIR handitsemo ko bigisha bifashishije uburyo bukurikira: Inama zateguwe; ubutumwa bugenewe abaturage; na taragiti. Banigishiriza kandi mu biganiro bisanzwe: mu miryango, hagati y’inshuti, mu bitaramo, mu rugendo n’ikindi cyose gishoboka; mu binyamakuru cyangwa no ku maradiyo (mu gihe byaba bishobotse).[24] Nkuko byatangajwe n’ikinyamakuru The Economist (27 March 2003) FDLR yanakoresheje Radio Sun binyuze k’uwahoze ari umuvugizi wayo Alexis Nshimyimana[25] uba muri Austria, mu kiganiro cye cyo mu rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda cyitwa ‘Izuba ry’Ibiyaga bigali’. Uwo Nshimyimana, kimwe na Ndereyehe bari mu bantu batangije CRP.

Mw’iriburiro ry’iyo nyandiko, bavugamo ko uwo PALIR igomba kurwanya ari FPR bita “nkoramaraso” bakongeraho “n’undi wese waza agamije gupfobya revolisiyo ya rubanda ya 59 n’ibyiza byayo…”[26] Bakongeraho ko “ubwo butegetsi buriho muri iki gihe mu Rwanda, bwagiyeho mu nzira zinyuranye na demokarasi, hafi miliyoni yose y’abahutu ibanje kwicwa kuva mu Ukwakira 1990.”[27]

Muri izo nyigisho PALIR ivuga ko uwo yahagurukiye kurwanya ari, “umututsi ugitekereza ko ari we nyir’u Rwanda wenyine …abishingiye ku bwibone, ubwirasi, kwikuza, n’ubugome bye, kugira ngo akandamize, kandi atsembe abo badahuje ubwoko … ashaka kugera ku migambi ye yo gufata ubutegetsi, atsembye abahutu.”[28] Ari mu nyigisho ya ex-FAR[29] na FDLR[30] babisuramo.

Iyo mfashanyigisho isobanura ko umututsi ari we uhoza abantu mu ntambara, ko ari we gashozantambara, kubera amayeri n’ibinyoma,[31] icyo PALIR igamije kikaba ari “uguhagarika itsembabahutu, rubanda rukishyira rukizana mu gihugu cyabo”.

Umuyobozi wa PALIR agasoza iryo riburiro agira ati: “Tumenye byimazeyo umwanzi wacu, duhaguruke tumurwanye twivuye inyuma. Intwaro yacu ibe KWIZERA IMANA – KUNGA UBUMWE – GUHARANIRA AMAHORO N’UBUTABERA.”[32]

Mu ncamake y’Amateka, bavuga uko abatutsi bambuye abahutu ubutegetsi, “bahereye ku mayeri yo kubacengera, biha gusa nabo, babashyingira abakobwa babo b’abatutsikazi, babaha inka n’amata, bananywana nabo.” Banavuga ko ngo bamaze kubacengera, babasubiranishijemo.

Bavuga ko ubutegetsi bw’abatutsi bwaranzwe n’ubwicanyi n’ubugome,[33] ngo ku buryo abahutu bakomeje kwicwa, hagasigara abemeye kuba abacakara n’ibihungetwe. Ngo umuhutu yari yarambuwe uburenganzira bwose, uhereye ku burenganzira bwo kubaho, ngo akicwa nk’ikimonyo ashinyaguriwe.

Muri ayo mateka, bavugamo ko ngo ku bw’abazungu, revolisiyo ya rubanda, icyayiteye n’ibyo bayikesha, harimo amatora, Repubulika n’ubwigenge. Mu byaranze u Rwanda nyuma y’1959, ntaho bagaragaza iyicwa ry’ibihumbi by’abatutsi n’abandi bakaba impunzi, bavugamo gusa ko ibyiza abanyarwanda bagezeho “baje kubivutswa n’Inyenzi-Inkotanyi zateye u Rwanda zigafata ubutegetsi ku ngufu muw’1994.” Kwumva icyo bashimira ibyabaye mu 1959 ni ibisobanuro bya RDR mu UMURAGE W’AMATEKA.[34]

Mu ijambo ry’ibanze ry’akanyamakuru gashya ka RDR kitwa Rwanda Rwacu Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, nk’umuyobozi mushya w’uwo mutwe, abwira abasomyi ngo: “FPR ibereyeho gutegekesha igitugu no gusahura …RDR ibereyeho kuba ijwi rya Rubanda!”[35] Ibyo ngo bikaba ari byo byatumye RDR yiha inshingano yo ‘kuzafata ubutegetsi mu gihugu’ kugira ngo ‘ubutegetsi bw’abaturage busubizwe abaturage babe ari bo bigenera ababayobora. Ingabire ati: “Ubu RDR ifite inshingano zo gusobanurira amahanga ukuri kw’ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda.”[36]

Ubwo bwicanyi Ingabire atavuga ko ari jenoside, ngo “ FPR irabwitwaza, kugeza magingo aya nibwo ntwaro yayo mu mahanga, ikirengagiza uruhare runini ifite muri ubwo bwicanyi no mu guhungabanya umutekano w’ igihugu kuva m’Ukwakira 1990 ubwo yagabaga igitero ifashijwe n’ ingabo za Uganda.”[37]

Umwanditsi mukuru wa Rwanda Rwacu, Eric Bahembera, yamamaza UMURAGE W’AMATEKA  ko ari “igitabo cyanditswe mu Kinyarwanda n’ impuguke mu by’ amateka kigasohorwa na RDR. Kandi kikaba “kigenewe cyane cyane kwigisha urubyiruko rwo “Rwanda rw’ ejo” amateka y’ igihugu cyababyaye.”[38] Uku kwandika amateka agoretse yuzuyemo urwango, ni uburozi batanga bagamije guhumanya abato kugirango ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ikomeze. Ibi ni nabyo bikorwa muri FDLR ku ngengabitekerezo bakwiza mu rubyiruko rutagize uruhare muri jenoside.

RDR ishinja FPR ko ngo yirengagije ugucyura impunzi nkuko byateganywaga n’amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha ngo bikorwa ‘mu kaduruvayo’. “Aho kubyitaho, FPR yahubuje impunzi hose zititeguye, ngo nizize zibohoze amazu n’ ibintu by’abahutu baciwe mu gihugu. Muri uwo muvundo hivanzemo abanyamahanga ngo bo kugwiza umubare. Bapfaga gusa kuba ari abasore b’intarumikwa zo kwica no kurwanira Kagame. Muri iryo tahuka ritizwe neza abana bakuwe mu mashuli baza kuba ba mayibobo i Kigali, inka zikurwa mu nzuri zitoshye ziza kwicwa n’inzara na tsetse mu Mutara wiswe “Tutsiland”(agahugu k’abatutsi ).[39]

1.1.2 Ubuhamya bw’ababaye muri FDLR ku miterere no ku nyigisho zayo

a. Uburyo ubuhamya bwafashwemo

Ku itariki 15 Mutarama 2005, nagiye i Mutobo gutanga inyigisho mu ngando ireba uburenganzira bwa muntu, no kurwanya ivanguramoko.  Abari muri iyo ngando ni abanyarwanda basubizwaga mu buzima busanzwe baza baturutse mu mitwe itandukanye ikorera mu mashyamba ya Kongo (DRC). Iyo mitwe ni FDLR/FOCA, Ingabo z’igihugu cya Kongo (FAC), uwitwa MAYI MAYI, n’abandi.

Kwigisha byonyine ntibyari bihagije, nashatse kumenya ko ibyigishijwe guhera mu mwaka w’2000 byari bigikomeza kuko byari no kumfasha kumenya aho mpera mvuga uburenganzira bwa muntu. Bose nababajije ikibazo kimwe: “Mu mitwe mukomokamo, mwari mufite iyihe ideology” (iyihe ngengabitekerezo)? Ibisubizo nabibasabye mu nyandiko, nanababwira kudashyiraho amazina yabo, kuko bidakenewe. Ibyo byampaye ibisubizo byinshi kandi bigiye bihura, n’ubwo byavuzwe mu magambo anyuranye.

Mu mibarize, nakoresheje ijambo ideology kubera ko nari nzi ko baryumva kandi barizi. Bampaye ibisubizo bitandukanye ariko ibyo nibanzeho, ari na byo nandika ubu, ni iby’abantu bo muri FDLR.

Byinshi mu bisubizo nabonye mu buhamya nabyumvise mu kiganiro IMVO n’IMVANO mu kiganiro cya Radiyo BBC-Gahuzamiryango cyo ku wa 15 Gicurasi 2005 iyo radiyo yagiranye n’abanyarwanda bo mu Majyepfo bari barahungiye i Burundi. Amakuru nahawe na bamwe bari mu nkambi barimo i Burundi, yerekanaga ko FDLR ariyo yabagumuye. Ibyavugiwe muri icyo kiganiro, kimwe n’aho bishamikira birigaragaza.[40]

Ku itariki 24/10/2005, hongeye kubazwa ikibazo nk’icyo, ariko mu buryo buziguye gato. Hari hateguwe urupapuro rufite ahateganijwe izina, hananditseho ko ryandikwa n’ubishatse, hari ibibazo bitatu:

Mu Rwanda ndetse no mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari haba hari abantu/imitwe bafite ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, ivangura n’amacakubiri? Yego/Oya. Nanababajije ngo: Wari mu wuhe mutwe? Politiki mwarwaniraga cyangwa mwaharaniraga ni iyihe?

Ibisubizo nitayeho byari iby’abakomoka mu mutwe wa FDLR/FOCA. Bikaba ari ibisubizo bigaragaza ko koko ingengabitekerezo yigishwa muri uwo mutwe ari iya jenoside.

Iyo ngengabitekerezo benshi bandikaga ko ari yo bigishwa kandi ikaba ari yo yatumaga bemera no kuba abasirikare bakarwana. Ibitekerezo byatanzwe mu bisubizo, sinashatse kubihina kuko uko biteye bikwereka imyumvire y’ababitangaga, ugasanga abantu baravuga bimwe mu buryo butandukanye.

b. Ubuhamya bw’abanditse amazina ku bisubizo batanze

Mpereye ku bisubizo byatanzwe n’abiyanditse amazina ku mpapuro bahawe. Mbonigaba Eliel yavuze ko intambara barwanaga ari iyo kwitabara. Uko kwitabara, uwitwa Mulindabigwi ati: “Twaharaniraga kurwana ngo twongere tube mu Rwanda, tukarwanya akarengane k’abavandimwe basigaye mu Rwanda,  gufungura imfungwa zari zifunzwe, guhindura ubutegetsi rubanda nyamwinshi ikabona ijambo, kuzemerera abana bacu bakiga ku buntu no kwongerera abakozi imishahara. Kigage Rwesa we yashubije ko ngo bagombaga gufata igihugu kubera ko “ubutegetsi buhari budakunda abantu”.

Habyarimana Innocent yanditse ko ibyo babigishaga “bigaragaza ivangura n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside”. Ngo bagendaga basobanurira urubyiruko ko bagomba kugarura ubutegetsi batakaje, ko mu gihugu hagaragaramo ivangura, amacakubiri n’irondakoko ku buryo bukurikira: ko ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bugizwe n’abatutsi; ko bagomba guhaguruka bagahirika ingoma ntutsi, ko nta na kimwe bemera cyiza Leta y’Ubumwe yagezeho, no kutazarongora umututsikazi.

Kuli Demokarasi Benoit, politiki barwaniraga ni iyo kubohoza igihugu cyabo ku ngufu. Ati: “Ideologie baduhaga (abahoze ku buyobozi ku ngoma ya Habyarimana no mu rwego rwa gisirikare), batubwiraga ko tugomba kurwana kugeza ku wa nyuma tukibohora, tukabohoza na bene wacu b’abahutu bakandamijwe n’ingoma iri ku butegetsi”.

Uwitwa Maniragaba ati: “Twarwaniraga guhagarika guhora kw’abacitse ku icumu, natwe tugashaka kwihorera; no guha rubanda nyamwinshi ubutegetsi, kwanga ubutegetsi bwa cyami n’ubusa nabwo bwose, no kurenganura abarenganye.”

Ibyo kubohoza u Rwanda kubera ko hari abantu barenganye yabihurijeho na Nzabonimpa Pie. Bakanabihuza n’uwitwa Sadi wavuze ko baharaniraga “gutaha no gutahukana impunzi mu cyubahiro cyazo, gusubizwa uburenganzira, kwiga, kuvuzwa, gusubizwa umutungo, …Gushyiraho ingabo zibereye abaturarwanda bose, kwunga abanyarwanda kuko bahemukiranye, no gusaba amahanga kuba yabibafashamo”.

Sadi akomeza avuga ko intambara yabo kandi yari iyo kugaragariza amahanga ibyabaye kubera amateka y’intambara havutse akajagari, gasenya ibintu, hagira abatakaza ababo muri jenoside, hagira n’abandi bagira umutima udatuje …”

Abitwa Kaparata Edmond na Bizimana Anastase kimwe n’abandi benshi bavuze ko utashye wese bamwica, akaba ari nayo mpamvu abenshi bakiri mu mashyamba, cyane cyane abasivili, kubera ibyo abategetsi ba FDLR babashyiramo. Bizimana Anastase we ahamya ko abayobozi bababuzaga gutaha ari “abazi ibyo bakoze mu Rwanda.” Bakanabigisha ko ngo “Imana yavuze ko igihugu ari icya FDLR n’abanyarwanda.”

Kayitare Lambert, Nkundanyirazo Eugène, Munyaneza Alphonse na Nsanzimana Liberat ngo barwaniraga kurwanya ubwoko Tutsi. Uwitwa Liberat we akongeraho ko “ubutegetsi buriho ari ubw’abicanyi, budatandukanye n’ubwa kera bwa Cyami, abahutu bakaba barabaye abaja”[41].

Uwitwa Nshimiyimana Deo, ngo bigishwaga ko abahutu nta burenganzira bafite, “n’ibindi byinshi bisebya ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda.” Bakagomba kurwana “Kurenganura imbaga nyamwinshi yarenganye …no Kubohoza igihugu kuko abahutu ari bo bene cyo;[42]

Abdu nawe yunze mu rya bagenzi be ko bagombaga kubohoza igihugu, kandi ko “nta muhutu ugomba kubana n’umututsi, ko nta kurongora umututsikazi … ko hari ingoma ya Cyami, ikiboko cya buri munsi, imirimo y’uburetwa” Ngo bakaba barigishijwe ko Habyarimana yari umubyeyi, FDLR ikaba ari imfubyi ze.

Masumbuko Felicien  we avuga ko abayobozi n’abakangurambaga babo babumvishaga ko “abari mu Rwanda bose ari abanzi bacu, bakatwumvisha ko tugomba kurwana kugira ngo twirukane abanzi bacu mu Rwanda, bakanatubwira ko ubutegetsi bwo mu Rwanda bushinzwe kwica, no gukandamiza umuntu wese utari umututsi, ngo uwo batishe bakamugira umucakara.”

c. Ubuhamya bw’abataranditse amazina ku bisubizo byabo

Ibisubizo by’abatariyanditse amazina, akaba ari nabo bari benshi, byasobanuraga cyane ibyavuzwe n’abiyanditse amazina. Hari abavuga mu mvugo yo gutsinda n’abadaca iruhande.

Umwe mubabajijwe mbere yo gusubiza yabanje gusobanura ingengabitekerezo icyo ari cyo mbere yo kuvuga iyo yize. Ati: “Ideologie: “Umurongo ngenga bitekerezo abantu bari mu muri Parti imwe bagenderaho ndetse n’amatwara yabo. Ati ideologie ya FDLR ni ukurwanya umuntu wese batavuga rumwe, by’umwihariko uwitwa umututsi aho ava akagera. Ati kumurwanya ni: “ugufata intwaro izo ari zo zose, maze umuhutu aho ari hose akitabira urwo rugamba rwo kurwanya uwo mwanzi. Si ibyo gusa: no kubiba mu Banyarwanda, ari bo Bahutu, ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, kutavuga rumwe n’umututsi, kutabarongoramo, kubanyaga ibyabo, kongera kwisubiza igihugu no kugitegeka uko bishakiye.”

Hari undi nawe wanditse ibyo bigaga mu buryo bw’ingingo zikurikirana nk’uko zanditse.

Ati: Ibyo muri FDLR batwigishaga, bimwe ni ibi:

Abantu batatu batandukanye bavuze ko hari ibyo babigishaga “kwanga” bakabivuga mu buryo butandukanye: “igihugu cy’u Rwanda”; “abaturage bakirimo” na “Leta iriho n’abayigize bose”.

Bigishwaga kutumva ko abo banyarwanda bari mu gihugu ari nkabo kandi ko nta munyarwanda uri mu gihugu, bose ari abanyamahanga, bivuga ko “habaye intambara dushobora kubica abo banyamahanga.” Banabigishaga “Kwanga izina umututsi aho ava hose, kandi tukaguma ku ivanguramoko rya mbere”[43].

 

2. Ubuhamya bwatanzwe n’miterere yihariye

Ibindi bisubizo nabishyize mu byiciro bibiri gusa. Ibivugwa ku Umuhutu uhagarariwe na FDLR n’ibivugwa ku Umututsi uvugwa ku giti cye kandi uhagarariwe n’ubutegetsi.

2.1. Ibivugwa k’Umuhutu

Aho bandika abanyarwanda, nyamwinshi, abarengana n’abantu baba bavuga abahutu. Iki gice kirimo ibyo FDLR yigisha ko iharanira kandi impamvu ikaba ari ukurengera umuhutu berekana ko yahindutse nyiramukubitwa.

Babigisha ko umwanzi ari umututsi kandi uwo mututsi akaba adashobora kwihanganira ko umuhutu agira umutekano, uwo mwanzi bakaba bagomba kumurwanya bakamuvana mu Rwanda. Umwe ati: “Tugomba kurwanya umwanzi (umututsi) twivuye inyuma”. Guhashya umwanzi u Rwanda rukagira amahoro, kandi, ubumwe bwabo akaba ari ngombwa ngo bigerweho. Hari uwanditse ko banigishwaga kumenya ko “umubare munini w’abasigaye mu Rwanda ari abanzi bacu, n’iyo yaba uwo muva inda imwe, cyangwa umubyeyi wawe.” Ku rugamba babaga bavuga ngo “kubita umututsi umusubize iyo yaturutse”;

Ibindi ngo barwanira ni:

  • “Kubohoza u Rwanda no kurenganura abanyarwanda bakandamizwa n’ubutegetsi bw’agatsiko k’abatutsi;
  • “Umuhutu utashye  bamujyana mu nkambi ntagere iwabo ngo amazu bayatuje mo abatutsi”;
  • “Nta munyarwanda kavukire ukiri mu Rwanda, abatishwe bari muri prisons (gereza)”;
  • “Utashye agerekwaho ibyaha atakoze, harimo no kumwandikaho ubwicanyi;”
  • “Nta muhutu upfa kubona akazi, n’abagafite ngo barirukanwa;
  • “Umuhutu ufite akazi mu Rwanda aba ari kimwe n’abatutsi, ariko ko adahembwa nkabo ahembwa make;
  • “Nta muhutu ufite uburenganzira ku gihugu cye;
  • “Nta muhutu wiga muri secondaire cyangwa muri université     ( Kaminuza );
  • “Igihugu gitegekwa n’ubwoko bumwe bw’abatutsi, ari nabo bonyine biga, akaba ari nabo bonyine bagize igisirikare;
  • “Nta muntu ugira uburenganzira bwo gutembera;
  • “Leta ya Kigali ikora genocide intellectual… bashyiraho amashuri ahenze, kandi ntibahe abahutu faveur zo kwiga, bakaziha abatutsi gusa;[44]
  • “Nta muhutu uzi ubwenge uri mu gihugu;
  • “Abategeka u Rwanda baje bagambiriye kwica abahutu kugira ngo babarangize cyangwa babakoronize”;
  • “Iyo umuhutu atashye avuye muri Kongo cyangwa mu kindi gihugu, bahita bamwica, ariko bakabanza kumushyira kuri radio ngo avuge, ahamagarire abandi gutaha, yarangiza kubahamagara bakamwica”;
  • “Iyo umuhutu atashye atemererwa kugera iwabo, ngo n’iyo ahageze bamwicirayo cyangwa bakamufunga, bakamucira imyaka 200 kugeza apfiriyemo;
  • “Uwahoze ari umusoda wa Habyarimana iyo atashye ntibatuma n’ab’iwabo bamubona, bahita bamwica. …n’iyo ashoboye kugera iwabo baramwirukana cyangwa bakamujyana mu karere ka kure, cyangwa muri prison centrale ( gereza nkuru )”;
  • “Intambara barwana ni iy’abahutu bagomba kurwana n’abatutsi bishe abahutu cyane;
  • “Iyo ukwezi kwa kane kugeze, hicwa abahutu basaga ibihumbi magana abiri (200,000);[45]
  • “Iyo abahutu batashye, ufite umugabo bica umugabo, umugore agasigara, niyo mpamvu abagabo bashize bakaba bake;
  • “Bagomba kurwanya agatsiko k’abatutsi babakuye mu gihugu cyabo, kuko bashaka kubagira abakozi babo nk’uko byahozeho kera;
  • “Umuhutu wese uzi ubwenge iyo abonye ibitagenda muri Leta y’Ubumwe akabyanga, bahita bamuhindura interahamwe kugira ngo afungwe burundu cyangwa yicwe;
  • “Umuhutu utahutse bamufata amajwi, bakazayashyira kuri radio bararangije kumwica;
  • “Ingoma ya gihake na gikoronize izatugarukaho;
  • “Bagomba kubohoza abanyarwanda bose bafungiye jenoside;
  • “Barwanira gukuraho ingoma y’abatutsi kuko nta wundi mwanzi abahutu bagira;
  • “Iyo tudakora (Abahutu) jenoside, abatutsi bari kutumara;[46]
  • “Nta muntu wigeze akora jenoside mu Rwanda, ko ari uburyo bwo gufunga no kwica abahutu kugira ngo igihugu gisigare ari icy’abatutsi gusa;[47]
  • “Mu buzima bwose bw’umuhutu atagomba kurongora umututsikazi kuko ngo abyarana n’abandi batutsi kandi yitwa umugore wawe;
  • “Umututsi abarusha amayeri, ku buryo badakoze uko bashoboye yazabarimbura akoresheje amayeri;
  • “Guverinoma iriho ubu idashaka umunyabwenge w’umuhutu;
  • “Kubohoza u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda nyamwinshi;
  • “Politiki twarwaniraga ishinzwe kurwanya abantu abo ari bo bose, cyangwa agatsiko k’abantu bake, baba abo mu Rwanda cyangwa mu karere k’Ibiyaga bigari …
  • “Igihugu cyose cyuzuye indwara ya Sida, bityo uwashaka yakomeza akarwana kuko bene wabo banduye;
  • “Hari inshinge ziterwa abahutu zibanduza icyorezo (cya Sida);[48]
  • “Abahutu bimuriwe mu midugudu kugira ngo bazabone uko babica bitabagoye;
  • “Abari mu gihugu batari abatutsi bose bakora imirimo y’uburetwa kuko nta burenganzira busesuye babona;
  • “Imana yavuze ko u Rwanda ari urwa FDLR n’abanyarwanda;[49]
  • “Kugarura ubutegetsi bwanyazwe na FPR -Inkotanyi mu w’1994;[50]
  • “Guhagarika icyo bise itsembabahutu rikorwa na FPR – Inkotanyi, cyane cyane ngo ryaba rikorerwa mu midugudu;
  • “Guharanira amahoro arambye mu Rwanda, mu karere k’Ibiyaga bigari, ndetse no muri Afrika muri rusange.[51]

 

2.2 Ibivugwa ku Batutsi n’ibindi

Hari ibisubizo byatanzwe byerekeza ku izina Mututsi n’undi batavuga ariko utari umuhutu. Ibyo bisubizo ni uko ngo:

  • “U Rwanda rutegekwa n’abatutsi gusa;
  • “Abategeka (u Rwanda) ni abanyamahanga, si abanyarwanda;[52]
  • “Abatutsi bashishikariza abahutu gutaha, bashaka ko bashira mu mashyamba kugira ngo abahutu bongere kujya baheka abatutsi; cyangwa ngo babatsembatsembe;
  • “Abategeka  u Rwanda ni bo bishe Perezida Habyarimana;[53]
  • “Abatutsi bose babatuje mu mujyi wa Kigali, abandi mu Mutara, kubera ko ari ho heza, kandi babatuza hamwe ngo babone uko babarinda;
  • “Abatutsi bagambiriye kumara abahutu aho bava bakagera, bahereye Uganda, u Rwanda, Kongo-Kinshasa, Kongo-Brazzaville, Kameruni, Centre Afrique, … Aho hose hagaturwa n’ubwoko bw’abatutsi, ahandi bakaharagira inka zabo;[54]
  • “Nta jenoside yabayeho;[55]
  •  “Abatutsi baturutse i Burasirazuba, ari nayo mpamvu mu ibendera ryabo harimo izuba, bisobanura yuko batazibagirwa ibyo abahutu babakoreye;
  • “Kuba abatutsi barashyizeho IBUKA ni ikibazo;[56]
  • “Abatutsi ni ubwoko bubi, butifuza ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mu Rwanda;
  • “Abatutsi   bacaga imigani, bayicira abahutu, ngo Harabaye ntihakabe, hapfuye imbwa n’imbeba, hasigaye inka n’ingoma. Ubwo ngo imbwa n’imbeba ni abahutu, naho kuvuga inka n’ingoma ngo babaga bavuga abatutsi. Ubusa bwaritse ku manga, umuyaga urabwarurira, bati ni ubutegetsi bw’abahutu bugomba kuvaho, kuko ari ubw’igihe gito. Kandi bati Bihehe yagiye i Nyanza isanga basinziriye, ifata ingoma, igeze ku manga irayicika, ngo ubwo bivuga ko ari ubutegetsi bw’abatutsi bwibwe n’abahutu muri 1959.[57]
  • “Amarangamuntu ariho ubwoko bayakuyeho, ariko abatutsi bafite ibya ngombwa byabo bagendana bihariye;
  • “Imisoro mu Rwanda iteye ikibazo, ni abatutsi bishakira amafaranga yo kuzahungana FDLR ifashe u Rwanda;
  • “Abatutsi bateganya kumara abahutu muri 2020;
  • “Urebye umututsi (ubwoko) ni mubi mu buryo asuzugura andi moko atuye u Rwanda yishyira hejuru;
  • “Umututsi ni mubi, kuko yica abantu b’ababyeyi, akabaca amabere, ubundi akabatunga ku biti bisongoye;
  • “Umututsi yavuye muri Ethiopia na Somaliya na Eritrea, ko ngo yababujije uburenganzira bwabo kandi ari umucakara, naho umuhutu akaba yaraturutse muri Tchad;
  • “Abatutsi ni abanyamwanda ku buryo bukabije;
  • “Umuco w’abatutsi ni uguhekwa gusa;
  • “Indirimbo yubahiriza igihugu iririmbwa gitutsi;
  • “Iyo urebye, u Rwanda abarurimo ni abagande, abarundi, abakongo, nta munyarwanda kavukire ukiri mu bye, uwo batishe baramufunga;
  • “Umwami iyo yashakaga guhaguruka yafataga inkota ebyiri mu biganza byombi, agahamagaza abana b’abahutu, imwe akayishinga uw’iburyo indi uw’ibumoso akabona guhaguruka. Bati abatutsi bongeye kutwica n’abariyo barashize;
  • “Umuntu yagemuraga inzoga i Bwami, akamara ibyumweru bine mu nzira yikoreye, adasomaho, yagerayo aho kumuha bakamukubita ibiboko munani ku kibuno;
  • “Bagomba gukuraho ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda, ngo hari ingoma y’abami;
  • “Imitungo yose ya Leta yaragurishijwe, nk’imihanda, ibiyaga, amahoteli, …;[58]
  • “Umututsi ntahinga, atungwa no gutegeka gusa;
  • “Abatutsi bafite umugambi wo kwigarurira Afrika, ko n’iyo hasigara umwe tugomba kumurwanya;[59]
  • “Mu mashyamba iyo, bigishwaga ko batagomba kwumva andi maradiyo, ko ibyo Leta y’u Rwanda ivuga byose biba ari ibinyoma;
  • “Abatutsi banze imishyikirano, akaba ari bo bica Habyarimana bigatuma abatutsi bapfa ari benshi kubera inyota y’ubutegetsi;
  • “Abahutu ni abere, naho abatutsi ni inkoramaraso;
  • “Jenoside yatewe n’abatutsi, ko ari bo bahanuye indege ya Habyarimana;
  • “FPR irigisa abantu, kandi igakoresha jenoside kugira ngo iheze abantu hanze;
  • “Kubera jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda, umututsi n’umuhutu ntibazigera bizerana;
  • “Abari mu ngando i Mutobo, buri wese akubitwa inkoni mirongo itanu ku kibuno buri gitondo;
  • “Umuntu wese utashye iyo ageze ku mupaka bamwambika ikanzu yanditseho ngo “URISHA CEREWA”;[60]
  • “Uwinjiye mu gihugu wese, iyo ageze ku mupaka, bamuha umwenda umuranga aho ari hose.

Ibi bisubizo byose biri mu buhamya, ubisanga mu magambo ahinnye yanditswe na RDR mu UMURAGE W’AMATEKA. RDR ishinja FPR ngo kuba “yaragaruye mu Rwanda ingoyi n’ikiboko byari byarasezerewe na Revolisiyo yo muri 1959 ndetse yongeraho n’agafuni.”[61]

Icyo gitabo gitinda cyane ku kababaro ngo umuhutu afite: “Umuhutu wese uri mu Rwanda ubu arugarijwe. Iyo atazize ubwoko bwe gusa azira inzu ye cyangwa isambu yigaruriwe n’umututsi wahungutse bakica nyirabyo kugirango hatazagira ubiburana.” “Iyo batakwishe baragufunga. Bakagufunga ariko bakugize intere. Ubu gereza zaruzuye kandi imfungwa ntizigaburirwa. Ufite uwe aramugemurira, atamugemurira akicwa n’inzara, ubwo akaba ahaye umwanya undi waraye afashwe. Ahubwo agafata iposho ry’ikiboko buri gitondo. Abanyamakuru b’imiryango mpuzamahanga irengera ikiremwa muntu bamaganye ibyo bintu FPR yiyica amatwi. Ng’uko uko FPR-inkotanyi yahinduye u Rwanda “Umuriro utazima”; bamwe bivugira icyongeleza, abandi igiswahili, igifaransa n’ikinyarwanda kigoretse.”[62]

Ingabire Victoire asobanura ingoyi mu buryo burambuye, agakoresha amagambo asa neza neza n’ari muri iki gitabo cya RDR ayobora. Atangaza ko atashye mu Rwanda yavuze ko aje “atabaye.” Ingabire avuga ko yaje gukiza abantu bakigobotora iyi ngoyi “Cyane cyane ubwoba, ubukene, inzara, igitugu, ubuhake, ruswa yahindutse inkuyo, …ubusumbane, ivangura, kwirukanwa mu byabo, gusembera,  kubundabunda, kugenda bubitse imitwe…etc[63]

3 Ubuvugizi bwa FDLR na RDR: Kuva muri DRC kugeza i Burayi

Ku itariki ya 1Gicurasi 2013, urubuga rwa African Arguments rwasohoye inyandiko y’ubuvugizi kuli Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, imubyinirira nka ‘Lady in Pink’[64], bisobanura “umugore mw’iroza”. Iyo nyandiko yanditswe n’umugabo w’umubiligi witwa Kris Berwouts wari umaze imyaka ayobora ihuriro rya za ONG z’Ibulayi ziyita ko zikorera ubuvugizi Afurika yo hagati.[65] Mu magambo ahinnye iryo huriro rizwi nka EurAc.

Berwouts wiyita ko ari impuguke ku bibazo bya Afurika yo hagati yanditse avuga ko ibyaha Ingabire Victoire (yita Inshuti ye) aregwa bijyanye n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, amacakubiri no kurema/cyangwa gukorana n’imitwe y’iterabwoba ari ibihimbano na politiki yo kubuza amahwemo “abatavuga rumwe na leta”.

Iyo nyandiko yerekana ko Berwouts aziranye bihagije na Ingabire Victoire, kuko avuga ibyo uwo avugira yakoze n’ibyo yatekereje.[66] Uwo muvugizi n’inshuti ya Ingabire avuga ko ku itariki ya 13 Ukwakira 2010 bavuganye imbona nkubone. Ngo bamaze kuvugana bwarakeye Ingabire arafungwa. Muri iyo nyandiko Berwouts akibutsa ko bavuganaga kenshi bihagije amezi 18 mbere y’uko Ingabire atahuka mu Rwanda.

Berwouts aburanira Ingabire Victoire kubijyanye no gukorana na FDLR ugasanga atari ukumenyana gusa ahubwo harimo no gukorana. Berwouts atanga amakuru agaragara ko atari ay’inkuru mbarirano ahubwo ari ibintu yahagazeho ubwe cyangwa se yaba yaragizemo uruhare. Berwouts yemeza ko ari byo koko ko muri Nyakanga 2009 Ingabire yabonanye n’abayobozi ba FDLR i Kinshasa bahagarariwe na Jenerali Majoro Ntiwiragabo Aloys.[67]

Berwouts asobanura ko mu byumweru bike mbere y’uwo mubonano wa Ingabire na FDLR, Minisitiri w’itangazamakuru wa DR Congo, Lambert Mende, yagiye mu ruzinduko rw’akazi  mu gihugu cy’Ububiligi. Ngo muri urwo ruzinduko Minisitiri Mende aboneraho umwanya wo gusura Ingabire iwe mu mujyi wa Zevenhuizen mu gihugu cy’Ubuholandi kugirango amugezeho ubutumwa bwa Perezida Joseph Kabila.

Ingabire bamwingingiye kujya i Kinshasa ngo kubafasha kwinginga FDLR kureka intambara. Nyuma y’urwo ruzinduko rudasanzwe rwa Lambert Mende, Ingabire yagiye i Kinshasa abonana na Perezida Joseph Kabila wamuhuje na Jenerali Ntiwiragabo.

Berwouts agasoza avuga ko ikibabaje ari uko FDLR yanze kwumvira Ingabire none ubu akaba abiregwa mu rukiko. Aho ipfundo riri, Berwouts ntiyerekana impamvu habaye uwo mushyikirano, n’inshingano Jenerali Ntiwiragabo afite muri FDLR n’impamvu FDLR yagombaga kwumvira Ingabire nk’umuyobozi wa RDR na FDU-Inkingi.

 

3.1 Ibitumvikana mu cyubahiro Ingabire na FDLR bahabwa na Perezida Kabila

Umukuru w’igihugu atuma minisitiri we ku muntu ukomeye cyangwa ufitiwe icyizere cyane. Perezida Kabila yashoboraga gutuma Ambasaderi we mu Bubiligi cyangwa mu Buholandi ubwo butumwa bukumvikana. Ingabire yaherewe iki ako gaciro? Ububasha yari afite ni ubuhe Perezida wa Kongo atagira?

Perezida Kabila ubwe mu bubasha afite nk’uyobora igihugu cya DRC yari gufata iya mbere akabwira abayobozi ba FDLR ati nimureke intambara mutuze cyangwa mutahe, cyane ko mu gushingwa kw’uwo mutwe leta ye yabigizemo uruhare rukomeye!

Bivugwa ko mu 2006-7 Ntiwiragabo yigeze guhunga akajya muri Sudan atinya kuzafatwa kimwe na ba Col. Renzaho Tharcise bajyanywe Arusha bavanywe kwa Kabila. Berwouts ntavuga igihe Ntiwiragabo yaba yaragarukiye muri DRC n’inshingano yari afite muri FDLR cyangwa se muri leta ya DRC. N’uko abana na Kabila nabyo ntibivugwa.[68]

Umuvugizi w’Ingabire na FDLR, Kris Berwouts, yagombaga kubwira abasomyi be ko Ingabire yahabwaga icyubahiro kubera ko yari perezida wa RDR guhera mu mwaka w’2000. Kandi ko Jenerali Aloys Ntiwiragabo ari mu basirikare batanu[69] bari mu nama yatangije RDR ku wa 3 Mata 1995, akanakomeza kuba mu buyobozi bwayo. Icyo gihe RDR ishyirwaho, Ntiwiragabo yayoboraga Division ya ex-FAR/Interahamwe muri Kivu y’amajyepfo, afite icyicaro i Bukavu.

                                              

 

Ni Ugushishoza

Abafite ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside nka FDLR n’abagira icyo bahuriyeho nayo, igihe cyose bereka abo bashakamo abayoboke ko Umututsi n’umushyigikiye wese ari abantu babi cyane, ko ari abanzi kandi ko nta muntu ukwiye kubizera. Banagerageza kwerekana ko Abatutsi ari bo ntandaro y’ibibazo byose by’u Rwanda ndetse n’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari;  bakanabatwerera kuba aribo bateguye bakanakora jenoside n’ubugome bwose bwajyanye nayo.

Iyo urebye ibyo bigisha birangwa n’ikinyoma hiyongeraho n’ubugome budasanzwe. Umuntu abona budasanzwe kubera ubukana burimo. Ariko kandi ubwo bugome ni ubusanzwe ahakozwe jenoside hose ku isi. Mw’itegurwa rya jenoside, abayitegura bitirira abazakorerwa jenoside ibizabakorerwa,[70] na nyuma y’aho bakazabatwerera n’ibyabakorewe mu cyiciro cyo guhakana no gupfobya icyo cyaha.[71]

Ukurikije ibyakozwe hategurwa jenoside yakorewe abayahudi mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi, ukanareba ibyabanjirije jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu mwaka w’1994 na mbere, ni bwo ubona igisobanuro cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Iyo ngengabitekerezo ni urusobe rw’ibitekerezo cyangwa umurongo ngenderwaho byigisha cyangwa byereka igice kimwe cy’abaturage ko bagomba kwikiza abandi badahuje ubwoko, idini, akarere, imyumvire n’ibindi. Ibyo bitekerezo bishobora kuba biri mu magambo cyangwa mu nyandiko.

Urwo rusobe n’umurongo kenshi bitangizwa n’abantu cyangwa agatsiko k’abantu bishyiraho bakabicengeza mu bandi (abize n’abatarize) kugirango bafatanye gutsemba abo badahuje. Ibyo bitekerezo bibi n’ubugome byigishwa igihe kirekire abantu babigenewe bakagera aho bumva ari ukuri. Kugirango babigereho bakenera imbaraga z’ubutegetsi. Habyarimana na Hitler barabikoze babufite, FDLR n’abo ikomokaho (RDR/PALIR) babigaragaza babushaka.

Abategura bakanakwiza iyo ngengabitekerezo, bahora bashakisha bakanahora bigisha impamvu zo kurimbura abagambiriwe gukorerwa jenoside. Icyo bashakisha cyane ni ikinyoma cyaba impamvu zituma abantu banga abandi “urunuka”. Ibi ni nabwo buryo bukoreshwa hategurwa abazakora icyo cyaha, jenoside igakorwa n’abantu bumva babyishimiye.

Iyo ngengabitekerezo yacengejwe ituma abicanyi biyumvamo ubutwari, bakica bumva ari ukwitabara n’igikorwa kigaragaza gukunda igihugu. Ibyo byishimo n’imbaraga zo gukora ikibi bikomoka mu magambo arimo urwango rukabije n’andi ashishikariza kutihanganira kubona abo bantu. Bitangira bavuga mu marenga bigasozwa no kudahisha ibyifuzo byo gutsemba ubwoko.

Ibi bitekerezo bya RDR, PALIR na FDLR iyikomokaho, nk’uko bigaragara, birasa. Byanditse uko byakiriwe ngo uzabisoma azabone isano ihari. Ibaye itari ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yaba iki? Ingengabitekerezo iyo ariyo yose ntivukanwa irigwa. Mu mwaka w’1992, muri disikuru Mugesera Leon yavugiye ku Kabaya ashishikariza abahutu kwica abatutsi, yagaragaje akababaro ko kuba hari abatutsi baretse bagahunga mu mwaka w’1959.

Abivuga, Mugesera nawe yishyira mubaretse abo batutsi bagahunga. Icyo gihe Mugesera yari afite imyaka 6 gusa y’amavuko. Urwango yavugaga icyo gihe ni urwo yigishijwe. Izo nyigisho yahawe ntaho zitandukaniye n’abana bagiye muri FDLR ubu bigishwa urwango rwa kirimbuzi. Mugesera yigishijwe n’abateguye cyangwa abagize uruhare mu bwicanyi bwo mu 1959, yigisha abakoze jenoside yo mu 1994 ubu bigisha abari mu mashyamba ya DRC.

Nkurikije ibyo nabwiwe n’abari muri FDLR bagatahuka ku bushake, ingengabitekerezo bize bakanigisha, hari abo yagiriye akamaro cyane. Ababyungukiyemo ngo ni abayobozi babo kuko babona abakomeza kubaba hafi. Ariko ngo izo nyigisho zanagize uruhare mu guca intege uwo mutwe. Ngo abenshi mu rubyiruko bagiye bayicikaho aho baboneye ko ibyo bigishwa byose ari ibinyoma bitabafitiye inyungu. Benshi muri bo byarabadindije, babura amashuli ngo nta muhutu wiga mu Rwanda, batinda mu mushyamba ngo baraharanira uburenganzira butabuze mu gihugu cyabo. Urebye ibyo bigishijwe, ababihimbye n’ababikwizaga, bagendera ku ihame ry’uko abo bigenewe bose ari ibicucu, kuko bandika ibintu nabo bazi ko atari ukuri. Abanyarwanda benshi bazi icyo bashaka. Icyo bashaka ni u Rwanda rutarangwamo ibyarushenye n’ibyarusenya.


[1] Reba: Tom Ndahiro, “Genocide Denial and the Case of the Rassemblement Républicain pour la Démocratie au Rwanda (RDR)” muri Phil Clark and Zachary D. Kaufman, eds, After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction” by C. Hurst and Co. and Columbia University Press (2008). Reba kandi kuli: http://friendsofevil.wordpress.com/2010/09/10/genocide-laundering-historical-revisionism-genocide-denial-and-the-role-of-the-rassemblement-republicain-pour-la-democratie-au-rwanda-rdr/

[2] Nshingiye kuli STATUS z’uwo mutwe mfite muri archives, washinzwe ku itariki ya 31 Ukuboza 1997.

[3] Ushingiye kuli status za PALIR, mu Kinyarwanda ALIR yiyitaga “INZIRABWOBA” kimwe n’uko ingabo z’igihugu za mbere no mu gihe cya jenoside (FAR) zitwaga.

[4] Iyi nyandiko yatanzwe n’umwe mubitandukanyije na PALIR kandi haza no kuboneka izindi nyandiko harimo na za taragigiti/tracts (inyandiko zitagaragaza uwazanditse zakwitirirwa)  zerekana ibyo bigishaga.

[5] Barabishimangira ko ariko byanahozeho …“Pour gagner la confiance des monarques et des chefs coutumiers hutu, ils (les Tutsi) entreprirent un long travail de séduction en leur offrant des cadeaux en vaches ainsi que des filles en mariage et pour finir, par conclure avec eux un pacte de sang avec le seul objectif final: les pénétrer et les dominer par la suite. Ils imposèrent alors aux Hutu de Gasabo un roi tutsi auquel tous donnèrent leur obédience” (FDLR Drame… p.2)

[6] Inyigisho ya PALIR ngo: “Abihayimana b’abahutu baratotezwa, ndetse benshi barishwe, abandi bafungiye mu magereza bategereje kwicwa; kandi ngo ababikira b’abahutu bafatwa ku ngufu, abanze bagashinjwa itsembabwoko.”

[7] Ngo abahutu bamburwa amazu yabo ku ngufu, maze bagacirwa mu midugudu.

[8] Ngo Abahutu ntibagira uburenganzira busesuye bwo gutembera mu gihugu, no mu mahanga… abana babo b’abakobwa bafatwa ku ngufu, bahohoterwa na local defense, bitwaje ko barinda umutekano.

[9] Muri iki gice ndetse n’ahandi harimo amagambo “kurimbura” no “kumara”. Uko akoreshwa akwiye kumvikana nka jenoside, kuko anakurikirana n’izina ry’abantu (abahutu) bagomba kurimburwa n’abatutsi. Kurimbura igiti, biba birenze kugitema kuko ubikora aba ashaka ko kitazashibuka. Binanumvikana ko ari jenoside kuko haba hari “umugambi” wo gukora icyo cyaha kandi kikaba ari kimwe mu biranga jenoside.

[11] Icyo bita ibiro bya kabiri cyangwa G2 mu mvugo y’igisirikare cyabo byavugaga ubuyobozi bushinzwe ubutasi n’iperereza.

[12] TUBOHOZE IGIHUGU CYACU. AMAHAME-SHINGIRO Y’UGUTSINDA KWACU, Bulengo, Gicurasi, 1995, p.4.

[13] Reba iyo nyandiko kuli: Tom Ndahiro, ‘RDR and Genocide Ideology’ (2010) kuli http://friendsofevil.wordpress.com/2010/08/27/document-3/

[14] Groupe Charles Nkurunziza, LES ASPECTS ESSENTIELS DU PROBLEME RWANDAIS, Bukavu, Mai 1995

[15]Iyo nyandiko nini ya FDLR yitwa ‘DRAME RWANDAIS’ yasohotse bwa mbere ku kuwa 17 Mata 2001. http://www.fdlr.org/comm/dramerwa.html Iyi nyito ikomoka ku gitabo cyanditswe na RDR-Section Cameroun ‘LA VERITE SUR LES DRAME RWANDAIS, Mai 1995.

[16] Iyo mu cyongeleza ifite umutwe MEMORANDUM ON THE RWANDAN PROBLEM CRISIS. Iyo abanyamakuru nka Mugenzi Ally Yusuf bashaka kumenya FDLR icyo ari cyo iyi nyandiko yabafasha bakareka kuroga abantu bababwira ko FDLR ari umutwe wa politiki usanzwe.

[17] Charles Ndereyehe ni umwe mu basivili bake cyane bagize uruhare mu ishingwa rya RDR. Ni umuntu wakomeje kuba umucengezatwara ya Hutu-Pawa kuko ari nawe wabaye Perezida w’abashinze Cercle de Republicain Progressiste (CRP). Iri huriro ry’abahezanguni niryo ryagize uruhare mu gushingwa kw’ishyaka CDR

[18] Reba: Tom Ndahiro, “Friends of evil (Chapter 4): The RDR or disguised genocidaires” (2013) kuli http://friendsofevil.wordpress.com/2013/08/28/friends-of-evil-chapter-4-the-rdr-or-disguised-genocidaires/

[19] Reba: Tom Ndahiro, “Abaha agaciro Abahakana jenoside, ntaho bataniye nabo” (2011) https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/abaha-agaciro-abahakana-jenoside-ntaho-bataniye-nabo/

[20] Ibid. (p.2)

[21] Ibid. (p. 125)

[22] Ibid. (UMURAGE p. 108-9). Iyi nteruro kandi uko iri yose uyisanga mu “(AMAHAME.. p.32)

[24] Nk’uko bakoreshaga amaradiyo BBC-Gahuzamiryango na Voice of America (VOA).

[25] Uyu Alexis Nshimyimana yagiye muri Austria mu 1992 amaze gutangiza CRP ubu akaba ari umwenegihugu waho yiha izina rya Alexis Neuberg. Yabaye mu buyobozi bwa PALIR na FDLR guhera mu 2000-2004. Icyo kiganiro yagikoresheje abwira abantu mu mashyamba ya Congo ko badakwiye gutaha  ngo kuko mu Rwanda nta mahoro

[26] Aya magambo yose ni incamarenga y’aho bakavuze umututsi kuko ari we mu ngengabitekerezo yabo bavuga ko atemera demokarasi (Ubutegetsi bwa nyamwinshi) na Repubulika (Ubutegetsi bw’abahutu butari ubwa Cyami)

[27] Aha jenoside yakorewe abatutsi irahakanwa ahubwo bakayisimbuza iy’abahutu. Ubu ni uburyo busanzwe bukoreshwa cyane n’abahakanyi ba jenoside. Kubera ko badashobora guhakana ko hari jenoside yabaye, izina ry’uwayikorewe rirahinduka rigasimbuzwa iry’uwayikoze.

[28] Tract ya ALIR yo ku wa 6 Kanama 1999, ivuga ngo “Turwanye ubwibone bw’abatutsi”; “Tugomba gukuraho agatsiko k’abatutsi”;  “Ubumwe bw’abahutu niyo ntwaro izatuma dutsinda abanzi b’igihugu (ABATUTSI)”

[29] “Biragaragara rero ko abatutsi kuva kera na kare barangwa no kwibona, kwikuza no gukurura intambara bagamije gukandamiza no gutegeka abandi (AMAHAME p.4) Bashingiye ngo kubyabaye ku Rucunshu baranzura ngo “Ibi birongera kugaragaza ubutiriganya, amayeri, ubugome bukabije, ubugambanyi n’umururumba w’ubutegetsi by’abatutsi iteka bashaka kugeraho bakoresheje intambara aho gukoresha inzira z’amahoro” (AMAHAME p.6)

[30] Pour d’autres, le drame rwandais provient de la “philosophie politique et et de l’idéologie” : la philosophie politique des monarques tutsi dont « les caractéristiques les plus marquantes sont l’esprit sanguinaire, les pratiques génocidaires, l’hégémonisme et l’expansionnisme” (FDLR Drame… p.2)

[31] FDLR yarabikomeje“Le mensonge fait partie de la culture Tutsi. La fabrication et la propagation du mensonge sont considérées comme des qualités et sont hautement appréciées chez les populations Tutsi. Un homme qui sait mentir est considéré comme habile et bon artiste ». (FDLR Drame.. p.32)

[32] Ibi nabyo ubisanga muri Art. 5 ya statuts za PALIR

[33] Na FDLR ngo: “Le régime du FPR-INKOTANYI est un régime sans base populaire, sanguinaire, dictatorial et fasciste, fondé sur l’arrogance, le mensonge et l’hypocrisie ainsi que sur l’idéologie d’hégémonisme et d’expansionnisme.” (FDLR Drame…p.73)

[34] “Akarengane rubanda rugufi rwagiriwe imyaka n’imyaka ni ko kaje kurutera kwivumbagatanya mu wa 1959 baharanira kwigobotora mbere na mbere ingoyi ya gihake n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bw’Abazungu n’Abatutsi ngo babone uko baharanira ubwigenge bw’igihugu cyabo. Revolisiyo yo mu wa 1959 rero yaje mbere na mbere irwanya ingoma ntutsi yari yarakandamije rubanda rugufi. Abari bayoboye rubanda rugufi muri iyo Revolisiyo basanze ari bwo buryo bunoze bwo gutsinda. Nguko uko Repubulika yavutse mu Rwanda isezerera ingoma ntutsi ishingiye ku bwoko na gikolonize yari yifashishije, maze demokarasi yinjira mu gihugu cyacu.” (UMURAGE p.119-20)

[35] Rwanda Rwacu No. 00, cyasohotse mu Ugushyingo 2000

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Inyandiko y’uwiyise J.C. Rutikanga yise “Ikinamico ry’amatora mu Rwanda“ muri RWANDA RWACU No. 03 Gashyantare 2001

[40] Ibyari muri icyo kiganiro biri mu ibaruwa ifunguye nandikiye abayobozi ba ORINFOR na Radio 10 kuwa 18 Mata 2008. Reba ‘BBC-Gahuzamiryango cyangwa BBC- Gakwizarwango?’ (Kanama 2011) https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/2011/08/17/bbc-gahuzamiryango-cyangwa-bbc-gakwizarwango/ . Icyitwa ‘Gahuzamiryango’ bari no kucyita ‘Gasenyamiryango’ ushingiye ku mikorere yabo imaze igihe ikora nk’ibyo.

[41] Inyigisho ya PALIR igaragaza ingingo cumi n’eshatu ngo z’aho ingoma ya cyami ihuriye n’ubutegetsi bw’Inyenzi-Nkotanyi, bagasoza bavuga ko ari yo mpamvu umuryango wa PALIR n’abandi barwanira kwibohora iyo ngoyi y’ubutegetsi bw’abatutsi; hagatangwa intego cumi n’ebyiri za PALIR, n’izindi ndwi z’ibyo PALIR imaze kugeraho.

[42] Iyi ni inshingano igomba kuba ariyo yarashingiweho ingabo za FDLR ziyita ABACUNGUZI. Guverinoma ya SINDIKUBWABO na KAMBANDA ikiyita ABATABAZI

[43] Ibi ni no kwemeza ko abategura amasomo bemera ko urwango ku batutsi atari urwa vuba ahubwo ari ikintu kimaze igihe, kuva kuri PARMEHUTU, MRND/CDR na HUTU Pawa n’ibyayikomotseho birimo RDR na FDLR.

[44] Muri ya nyigisho ya PALIR bavuga ngo: “Abarimu b’abahutu mu nzego zose barishwe, abandi barafungwa, abashoboye gucika ku icumu barahunga. Ngo ibyo bituma abigisha bari barabyigiye baba bake cyane, bityo inyigisho zitangwa zikaba nta reme zifite.Ngo amashuli menshi yarashenywe, andi ahindurwa ibigo bya gisirikare; abana ntibiga kubera kudahabwa imyanya, gushyirwa mu gisirikare ku ngufu, no gutinya kujyayo kubera umutekano muke wabo…. Abanyenshuri b’abahutu (abashoboye kujya mu ishuri) n’abatutsi ntibafatirwa ku manota amwe mu kwimurirwa mu mashuri yisumbuye; Ihuzabitsina hagati y’abantu b’igitsina kimwe ryagizwe amajyambere; Umuco mubi w’ikinyoma wahawe intebe; Abahutu bambuwe imitungo yabo ihabwa abatutsi…”

[45] Nabajije umwe mu bari muri iyo ngando uko kwica byatangiye asubiza ko ngo bababwiraga ko byahereye mu mwaka w’1995 kwibuka jenoside bitangiye. Ukurikije iyo mibare kugeza ubu mu 2013 haba harishwe 3,600,000!

[46] Musangamfura Sixbert umwanditsi mukuru w’ikinyamakuru ISIBO yanditse aburira abahutu mu Rwanda ko nibatamara abatutsi aribo bazashira. Ibyo biri mu nyandiko ye ifite umutwe “AHO BUKERA ABATUTSI BARATUMARA mu ISIBO N° 27 (p.8) cyo kuwa 14-21 Ukwakira 1991.

[47]Ku bantu bafite iyi ngengabitekerezo kuvuga ko hari jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda ni ikinyoma.

[48] Ibindi biri mu nyigisho ya PALIR ni uko: amavuriro ya Leta atagikora kubera ko yahindutse ibigo bya gisirikare, abaganga badahagije kubera ivanguramoko mu gutanga akazi, ngo n’abahari (abatutsi) ntibita ku barwayi b’abahutu; kandi ngo Abatutsi babiba SIDA mu bahutu.

[49] Mu gihe cya PARMEHUTU hari indirimbo y’Abanyuramatwi (yari Korali y’i Gitarama) yitwa “TURATSINZE” baririmba ngo ‘Turatsinze ga ye….Gahutu aho uri hose Rwanda ni iyawe… Impaka zirashize, dore Rwanda ibonye beneyo gahutu ganza nta mpaka …Loni yindi izava he?’

[50] Kunyaga ni ugutwara ikitari icyawe cyangwa kwisubiza icyo wari waratanze.

[51] Kurwanya abatutsi aho babasanze mu bihugu bindi ni umugambi umaze igihe kandi bigakorwa byitwa guharanira amahoro arambye. Icyo gitekerezo cy’amahoro arambye ni ‘FINAL SOLUTION’, kimwe n’uko Hitler yabikoze ategura jenoside yakoreye abayahudi mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi.

[52] Ibyo kwemeza ko abari mu Rwanda, by’umwihariko abategetsi n’abatahutse ari abanyamahanga byakomotse no kuli RDR bakanabisobanura ku buryo burambuye. (UMURAGE  p. 103)

[53] Iyi ni imvugo ikoreshwa n’abajenosideri bose, abahakana n’abapfobya jenoside. Ari abanyarwanda n’abanyamahanga. Icyaha kiba cyarakozwe, kugihakana gusa bamwe bagasanga biruhanyije bagahitamo gushakisha impamvu yatumye abantu bica abo batagira icyo bapfa. Kwiyumvisha ko icyaha umuntu yakoze gifite impamvu byorohereza mu mutima abagiteguye n’abagikoze.

[54] RDR igaya ingabo za FAR ngo kuba zitarababuriye hakiri kare “tukitegura, kuva Museveni afatanije n’impunzi z’abatutsi b’abanyarwanda gufata Uganda akanabasezeranya kubafasha gufata u Rwanda bataretse akarere kose k’ibiyaga bigari ngo kose “gatutsikazwe”.” (UMURAGE p. 101)

[55] Mu nyandiko y’ishingwa rya RDR yo ku itariki ya 3Mata 1995 bavuga ko bagomba guhakana bagatsemba ko nta jenoside yigeze ikorwa. Ngo banayemeye hakavugwa jenoside yakorewe abahutu. Mu mwaka w’2000 babisubiramo aho kuvuga jenoside hakoreshwa “Intambara y’indunduro” na jenoside ebyiri. (UMURAGE p.98)

[56] Kwibuka no kwibutsa jenoside bibabaza kandi bikabangamira abateguye, abashyigikiye, n’abashyize icyo cyaha mu bikorwa. Aho kubona ko kwibuka ari ngombwa kandi ari urukingo rwo gutuma icyo cyaha kitakwongera.

[57] Ibi ni ibitekerezo byahimbwe na Joseph Habyarimana Gitera mu nyandiko yise ‘PAR QUI ET COMMENT RECONCILIER LES TWA, LES HUTU, LES TUTSI DU RWANDA ENTRE EUX!!!’ Ngo Gitera yanditse agamije gutanga umusanzu w’icyo yise ‘Protocole de la Réconciliation nationale entre les Rwandais’ (7 Gicurasi 1976) igenewe Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana. Bimwe mubyari muri iyo nyandiko byandukuwe muri Kangura No 6 Ukuboza 1990 (p.12-15). Gitera yandikiye Perezida Habyarimana ngo ari igisubizo ku kibazo yari yaramubajije ngo “Abahutu n’Abatutsi bapfa iki?”. Igice cy’iyo nyandiko ya Gitera cyanandukuwe mu kinyamakuru ITABAZA No 01 cyo muri Mutarama 2010 (p.8-10) Iyo propaganda ya jenoside yari yarahawe umwanya mu ndirimbo ya Simon Bikindi yitwa INTABAZA abantu benshi bazi nka “Sebahinzi”. Muri iyo ndirimbohari aho bavuga ngo: “Bene Sebahinzi tugomba kumenya ko Inkotanyi ziramutse zitsindishije amasasu, uretse ko bidashoboka, amashyaka yose barimo bose yazima burundu abayarimo bose bagashirira ku icumu. Nk’uko abahinza b’abahutu bashiriye ku icumu mu gitondo umututsi agacyuza imihigo agira ati: “Harabaye ntihakabe, hapfuye imbwa n’imbeba, hasigaye inka n’ingoma”. Uyu Bikindi ari mu bantu baburanishijwe n’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rukorera Arusha, akaba yarahamijwe ibyaha, akatirwa igifungo.

[58] RDR ishinja“Abanyamerika n’abongeleza gufasha abatutsi babinyujije muri perezida Museveni umugambi wo gushyira kuri ako karere k’Afurika yo hagati (Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi no mu burasirazuba bwa Zaïre) ingoma HIMA-NTUTSI ngo izafasha Abanyamerika kurwanya ab’ISLAM.” (UMURAGE…p.107) Hanavugwamo “umugambi wo kugurisha u Rwanda”

[59] Imfashanyigisho ya PALIR yigishaga ko abatutsi bigwijeho umutungo, no kuba ibikoresho by’amahanga ya mpatsibihugu. Ngo mu Rwanda abatutsi bategekana n’abagande, abanyamerika, n’abandi benshi. Banavuga ko hagamijwe gushinga icyo bita Empire Hima-Tutsi. Bati abatutsi n’abahima bafite mu migambi yabo mibisha, kwigarurira uturere twa Karagwe na Buha two muri Tanzaniya.

[60] Iyi mvugo ni igiswayire banditse mu kinyarwanda bishatse kuvuga ngo “warakererewe”. Bikomoka ku nshinga ebyiri: “Kuisha” (kurangiza/kurangira ) na  “Kuchelewa” aribyo gukerererwa.. Aha ni nko gushaka kuvuga ko utahutse bamwandikaho ko nta mwanya afite mu gihugu kuko yatinze gutahuka…

[61] Ibid. (p.104-5)

[62] Ibid p.105-6

[63] Reba “NDATASHYE – Mme Victoire INGABIRE UMUHOZA YASESEKAYE I KANOMBE – Kigali (16.01.10)  http://www.victoire2010.com/view/article/communique-ingabire-victoire-va-exercer-ses-droits-politiques-au-rwanda/index.html

[64] Kris Berwouts, Lady in Pink: Victoire Ingabire faces her judges in appeal (May 1, 2013) on http://africanarguments.org/2013/05/01/lady-in-pink-victoire-ingabire-faces-her-judges-in-appeal-%E2%80%93-by-kris-berwouts/

[65] Izo za ONG akenshi zivugira abantu n’amashyirahamwe ashyigikiye abatekereza nka Ingabire Victoire. Hafi ya zose muzo nasomye ntaho ubona bavuga ikibazo cy’ubwicanyi n’iyicarubozo bikorwa na FDLR muri DR Congo.

[66] Reba ‘Perezida Joseph Kabila yabaye umuhuza wa Ingabire Victoire na FDLR-Berwouts’ https://umuvugizi.wordpress.com/2013/06/28/736529/

[67] Muri iyi nyandiko ipeti rya gisirikare rya Ntiwiragabo Berwouts ntarivuga cyakora akavuga uko byagenze.

[68] Abakorera propaganda abajenosideri, kimwe n’abajenosideri ubwabo, barabeshya cyangwa bakavuga amakuru ibice kugirango ababumva cyangwa abasoma ibyabo batamenya ukuri.

[69] Abo basirikare ni ba Jenerali Augustin Bizimungu na Gratien Kabiligi, ba Koloneli Aloys Ntiwiragabo na Renzaho Tharcise na Major Aloys Ntabakuze.

[70] Ibi nibyo byitwa ‘Accusations in a mirror’ bikaba byarasobanuwe bihagije na Des Forges, A., Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch and the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues, New York, NY, USA, 1999 (p.65-6)

[71] Ari RDR, PALIR na FDLR n’abayobozi babo, bafata ibyakorewe abatutsi mu 1994 ndetse na mbere yaho bakabyitirira abatutsi cyangwa FPR-Inkotanyi.

8 thoughts on “FDLR : Ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ntigombera imyaka y’amavuko, irigishwa

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  7. Pingback: #Rwanda @bbcgahuza Ikomeje kwamamaza #FDLR na #RNC n’ikinyoma kubyo ku Rweru. Soma Imvo n’Imvano yo ku wa 27/9/2014 | umuvugizi

  8. Muraho muvandimwe, I once read that Gitera wrote an article in his newspaper Ijwi rya Rubanda Rugufi comparing Tutsi to rats who should be shown no mercy and telling the Hutu to prepare their imihoro. Have you ever seen that article? Can you print it here as an important source of the ingengabitekerezo.

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